Nature and nurture in second language acquisition

Department of Language and Linguistics


Nature and nurture in second language acquisition– LG438-7-SP


Assessment 2020-21




Mid-term assessment task (50%)


Deadline: to be submitted via online submission by 4 p.m. on Monday 22nd February 2021


Word length: 1500 words (in total, i.e. including answers to both questions).


There are TWO questions in this assignment; answer BOTH questions:



  • QUESTION 1: The L2 lexicon



Answer ALL subsections in this task (there are THREE parts: a, b, and c):


  1. An oral Word Association test has been carried out with two native speakers of English (NS), and two second language learners of English (NNS; one intermediate and one advanced). Their responses to the prompts are given in the table below. 


Prompt word NS1 NS2 NNS1 (intermediate) NNS2 


Egg Bacon Hen Yellow Bacon 
Government  Johnson Incompetent Policy Policy 
Salt Pepper Pepper Sea Pepper
Butterfly Insect Moth Fly Pretty
Run Walk  Jog Fast Walk
White  Black Black Colour Black
Old New Young Grandfather Man
Cousin Family Nephew Pablo Family
Sleep Night Wake Awake Dream
Knot Rope String Pot Tie
Elephant Giraffe Animal Jungle Animal
Pure Innocent Clean World White
Painting Drawing Drawing Wall Picture
Build House Construct Tower House
Table Chair Chair Dinner Chair
Give  Take Gift Gift Present
Emotion  Feeling Happy Motion Sad
Work  Study Play Hard Job
Wave  Sea Beach Save Goodbye
Concept  Idea Idea Contest Lecture 


  1. Analyse the type of relationships between the prompt and the response given in the table above.

Classify the responses as either paradigmatic or syntagmatic, or another relationship, and compare the results from the native speakers and the second language learners. Present both your classification and your analysis clearly, using tables and descriptive statistics.


  1. Discuss your findings in the context of what we know about how the mental lexicon is organised in native speakers and in second language learners. Discuss whether your results support findings in the literature or not, and why this might be the case (or not).


See class notes 2 and 3 for useful references.



  • QUESTION 2: Language development



Klein and Perdue (1992: 91 and 101) provide short transcripts of the English speech of a native speaker of Italian, ‘Andrea’, who was working in London as a waiter. The first sample of speech was collected after he had been in London for 6 months; the second sample was collected 20 months later. Andrea appears to have been acquiring English primarily on the basis of interaction with other speakers of English.


Task: Assuming that what Andrea says reflects his knowledge of English:

(a) describe the changes that have taken place in his knowledge of lexical and grammatical (functional) morphemes between the first sample of speech and the second;

(b) discuss whether the pattern of development is what you would have expected on the basis of other studies of early L2 learners that you have encountered in the module or in your readings.


Transcript 1 (6 months after arrival). Andrea is describing a scene involving a man and two women cooking when a fire breaks out (… = pauses):


every people happy in the cooking … tea … biscuit … one man … I dunno … for the window …the man thinks for … no possible from the door. This man one idea from the window but when this man is in the cooking the door is open from the very quickly fire brigade


Transcript 2 (26 months after arrival). Andrea is describing a scene from the Charlie Chaplin film Modern Times.


well after ten days they meet again and she tell him that she find, found one house for their, for them, and they go together to see this house. This house is a very old house all in wood in one field near one lake and they stay in this house, well they stay there.


See class 3 and 4 notes for useful references


End of term assessment (50%)


Deadline: to be submitted via on-line submission by 4pm on Monday 12th April 2021


Word length: 1500 words


Answer ONE of the following questions. (There are TWO questions):


  1. To what extent do you think innate linguistic knowledge is involved in second language learning? Support your argument with evidence from studies encountered in the module and in your readings.


You might find the following sources particularly useful:


Hawkins, R. (2019). How second languages are learned: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hawkins, R. 2001. Second language syntax: a generative introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell, chapter 1.4.

Hawkins, R. 2004. The contribution of the theory of Universal Grammar to our understanding of the acquisition of French as a second language. Journal of French Language Studies, 14, 233-255.

Hawkins, R. 2008. The nativist perspective on second language acquisition. Lingua, 118, 465-477.

O’Grady, W. 2008. The emergentist program. Lingua, 118, 447-464.

Mitchell, R., Myles, F., and Marsden, E. 2013. Second language learning theories. Abingdon: Routledge, chapter 3. 

White, L. 2003. Second language acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chapters 1 and 2.


  1. Choose one English linguistic structure studied during the module (e.g. verb morphology, articles, passives, double objects, relative clauses, word order, scrambling, aspect…). Outline what we know about its acquisition by second language learners and discuss the role of at least two of the following factors in its development:
  • The L1 of the learners
  • Innate knowledge vs. language-specific properties
  • The input
  • Explicit instruction
  • The age of onset of acquisition 

Please note not all these factors will be relevant for all the structures studied. Indicate briefly which factors your essay focuses on and why. 


You might find the following sources particularly useful:

See module notes (on Moodle) for references to specific linguistic structures.


The following textbooks might be particularly useful:

Hawkins, R. (2019). How second languages are learned: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hawkins, R. (2001). Second language syntax: a generative introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell

Herschensohn, J. (2007). Language development and age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mitchell, R., Myles, F., & Marsden, E. (2019; 4th ed.). Second Language Learning Theories. Abingdon: Routledge.

White, L. (2003). Second language acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Instructions Sheet

Instructions Sheet

For Question 1, please record a 5 – 8 minute video providing your analysis of the scenario provided using an ethical theory and the ACS code of professional conduct.

For Question 2, please provide answers in this document in the space provided.

Upload both your video (or a link to your video) and this word document to the unit Moodle site by the due date.

Ensure you include references to academic sources under the answer to each question where appropriate.

Answer ALL questions in this part.

Question 1 20 Marks

Imagine you’re the Director of Marketing for a cutting-edge robotics firm, Bluebank Robotics. Inspired by the writings of science fiction author Isaac Asimov, and films based on his work such as Bicentennial Man and iRobot, five years ago your organisation released a fully programable anthropomorphic (human-like) robot designed to look and feel like a human being. Although programmed to follow Asimov’s three laws, the robot is otherwise not ‘smart’ and is instead programmed by the user. It was a great success, making your organisation top in the industry / millions of dollars.
However, now several years after the robots introduction, consumers have started to find ways to program the robot to complete emergent tasks that are outside its original programming. These include completing criminal acts such as carjacking, as well as being programmed for passionate and sexual acts. There is even a story of one customer living with a robot as his girlfriend! The media recently reported on this trend and this forced a meeting between yourself, the director of HR (DHR) and the chief financial officer (CFO). In discussing this issue, the DHR was concerned that the robot committing these acts raised issues of accountability and consent (who is responsible if the robot does illegal acts?), but the CFO argued that choices made by customers on how to use our robot should not force us to limit it in a way that might cost us money.
You decide to consider the scenario and come to a concrete recommendation that you can use for marketing about the likely ethical outcomes of using the technology, based on your understanding of workable ethical theories. Answer all of the following sub-questions based on the above scenario, using the following approaches:
Analysis 1: Kantianism OR Utilitarianism (Act or Rule) OR Social Contract Theory OR Virtue Ethics
Analysis 2: ACS Code of Ethics / Code of Professional Conduct (see here:
Question 1 continued over page
Question 1 (continued)

Select one of the four ethical theories and analyse the above scenario to provide a recommendation. Clearly state any assumptions you make during your analysis. (7 marks)

Use the ACS code of ethics/code of professional conduct to analyse the same scenario to provide a recommendation. Clearly state any assumptions you make during your analysis. (7 marks)

Compare the two approaches that you selected in sub-question (a) and (b). What are the strengths/weaknesses of each? Do they recommend the same action in this scenario? Will they recommend the same action in general, or could they recommend conflicting actions? In your opinion, which of the two selected approaches is the best for analysing ethical and social issues in ICT? (6 marks)

Record a 5 – 8 minute video answering the above questions and upload it to Moodle. Provide any references or notes for your video in the box below. If you need to provide a link to your video, paste it here.

Question 2 30 Marks

Consider legal issues.

What is a defence export control? Briefly explain the two types of defence export control. Explain why this is an issue for ICT professionals. (6 marks)

Consider intellectual property.

Define fair use and fair dealing and explain the difference between these two approaches. Explain the case for fair use/dealing, and why somebody might be for or against this argument. (6 marks)

Consider artificial intelligence.

Explain the approach for computer vision and speech recognition for robots. Why do ICT researchers put such a focus on perfecting these technologies? Give an example of each to support your arguments. (6 marks)

Consider privacy.

Explain the four approaches to enhancing privacy over the Internet as implemented in the ICT industry. Provide two examples, one highlighting the benefits of these technologies, and one highlighting the risks. (6 marks)

Consider the workforce.

Provide two examples of changes to the workplace that have been driven by technology. For each change, outline the benefits and risks to the workplace, using your example to illustrate your point. (6 marks)

– End of Paper –

Introduction to Strategy

21510: Introduction to Strategy
Summer Semester 2020/2021
Assessment task 3: Final Exam (Individual) – 40%
This examination will be made available online at 9.30am on 18th February 2021
Your completed answer file is due at 9.20 am on 19th February 2021 and must be
submitted online via the Turnitin link which can be found in the Assignments folder on
Blackboard. Please note your first upload is your final upload (multiple submission are
not permitted).
There is ONE question. Each page of your answer should be sequentially numbered
and include your name and student number in the footer.
The examination is worth 40% of the marks available for this subject.
This examination is an open book examination.
The examination is expected to take approximately 2 to 3 hours of working time. You
are advised to allocate your time accordingly. Your answer file may be submitted at
any time before the due time. Please allow time to complete the submission process.
Please submit your file as a PDF/Word etc format. Please name your file as follows:
EXAM_subject number_student number. For example:
EXAM (Subject number) _21510_12345678 (your student number) so it should look
Please also include your name on the cover sheet and the Tutorial group number that
you were allocated.
Word Limit
There is a word limit for the question of 1000 words. Footnotes/references are not
included in the word count. The most important thing is to answer the question in a
succinct manner. This means that your answer can consist of a word count less than
the imposed word limit. A ten percent (10%) leeway on the word count is permitted.
Marks will only be considered for a maximum of 1000 words +10% no marks will be
allocated for additional words that exceed the designated limit.
References must be used for citation purposes including the development and
statements of your argument. A bibliography is not compulsory for this assessment.
Important Notice – Exam Conditions and Academic Integrity
In attempting this examination and submitting an answer file, candidates are
acknowledging that the work they submit is a result of their own unaided efforts and
that they have not discussed the questions or possible answers with other persons
during the examination period. Candidates who are found to have participated in any
form of cooperation or collusion or any activity which could amount to academic
misconduct in the answering of this examination will have their marks withdrawn and
disciplinary action will be initiated on a complaint from the Examiner.
Exam answers must be submitted via Turnitin. Staff may request that a student
undertake an oral test to ensure they have completed the work on their own and to
assess their knowledge of the answers they have submitted.
Students must not post any requests for clarification on the Discussion Boards on
Blackboard, Canvas or Microsoft Teams. Any requests for clarification should be
directed by email to David Bickett at
Should clarification be required it will be broadcast by email to all students in the exam
group by David Bickett who will be available for the first hour of the examination
time only.
Further Information:
• The exam is worth 40%
• There is one compulsory question
Please Note:
1. Your completed exam MUST be submitted online through Turnitin. Only
answers submitted through Turnitin will be marked
2. Please DON’T email your answer to your Tutor or anyone. Only exams
submitted through Turnitin will be marked
3. Submission deadline will NOT be extended. All answers MUST be submitted
within the 24hours timeframe – completion time is 09:20 am 19th February (no
4. If you have any difficulties uploading your completed exam on time through
Turnitin, then and only then, e-mail a copy to David Bickett before the deadline
time of 09:20 am on the 19th February 2021.
Important: Please ensure that if you copy and paste materials from the internet
or other sources they must not be plagiarised and consequently they must
be appropriately academically referenced.
Exam Question:
Amazon is considering establishing a research and development (R&D) facility in Australia
with its prime focus on artificial intelligence (AI). It is considering the locations of Canberra or
Sydney. The research facility will require a strategic alliance with a suitable University in one
of these locations.
As the strategic decision maker for Amazon, you are required to determine and then
recommend either Canberra or Sydney as the preferred location for Amazon’s research facility
together with a suitable strategic alliance University partner. In doing so, you must provide the
reasons for your strategic choices.
To answer this question, you must consider and use the most appropriate strategic
frameworks and tools based on what you have learnt in 21510 Introduction to Strategy and
then make your final recommendation grounded on the strategic insights you have
To obtain maximum marks you must consider the resources, capabilities, business culture,
plus other relevant strategic influencing factors that will support your recommendation.


Individualized Family Service Plan Development (IFSP) (25 points-small group project)
This project is an in-class group activity. Students will be given a case study about a family with a child who is eligible to receive early intervention services.
Part1: Students will complete a blank IFSP form with all relevant information. Students are required to determine the family’s resources, priorities, and concerns and then generate longterm outcomes (functional goals) and short-term goals for the IFSP.
• Based on the information students have about the family, they will list their resources,
priorities, and concerns related to enhancing the child’s development. (5 points)
• Students will write two long-term outcomes (functional goals) for the child and family.
This is a statement of what the family would like to see happen as a result of early
intervention services. The outcomes may be developmental goals for the child or be
related to the family’s ability to enhance the child’s development. The outcome must be functionally stated, in family terms and measurable. (5 points)
• For each long-term outcome, students will write three short-term goals. Short-term goals are building blocks that lead to the achievement of the long-term outcome. These goals should be written from the perspective of what the child should be able to accomplish, should represent an end result, and should be functional and measurable. (8 points)

Part 2: Students will collaboratively develop an intervention activity / strategy to support an IFSP goal to implement in the case study child’s natural environment. (7 points)
a. What IFSP goal is addressed?
b. Describe the activity / intervention
c. Describe how natural learning opportunities or family routines are used to support
the intervention activity
d. Describe how you know the child or family made progress.

Leadership Assignment

Interview 2-3 people familiar with your planned field of study/work (e.g. faculty, industry professionals, mentors, etc.) on how they identify macro trends that may impact their field.

  • What do they suggest a student/young professional be paying attention to?
  • What do they read/watch/follow to spot these trends/suggested resources?
  • How do they prepare for these potential changes?

In about 500 words, write a summary paper on what you learned from these interviews and its relationship to your personal, professional, and academic goals.

My field is teaching


“Just as children must construct their own knowledge of science you will have to construct your own knowledge of how to teach science.” (Howe, 2002, p.7)

Based upon Fosnot’s (1989) depiction of constructivism and the passage above, discuss the main idea behind constructivism.

You can use other resources such as the internet to review constructivism.

Must be between 150-200 words


Two discussion post. Minimum 500 words each.

1. How is the​ teacher-centered learning theory different from​ child-centered theories described in Chapter 1 of the Tompkins & Rodgers text? How do these different approaches to learning relate to how we teach reading and writing? (chapter 1)

2.  Prior to 1970, educators used the term “readiness” to describe a developmental point at which children should begin formal reading and writing instruction. The current perspective, emergent literacy, recognizes that very young children exhibit behaviors that show that literacy is already a part of their lives. What activities capitalize upon a young child’s motivation to read and write? What are ways in which teachers, parents, and guardians can support young learners at each stage of development (emergent, beginner, fluent)? (Chapter 2

Hospitality And Tourism Industry Challenges

Write a 4–5 page paper in which you:

Determine the challenges involved in managing a restaurant operation that are specific to your state or local municipality, as well as how you would address those challenges.

Determine the impact of computerization on food service and lodging operations in your state, particularly in the areas of reservations, accounting, personnel management, and the recording of sales transactions.


Consider the quality of technology infrastructure in your state and the degree of technology usage by potential customers visiting or using these services within your state.

Analyze the interdependence of food service, lodging, and meeting segments of the hospitality industry and make two recommendations for how the synergy among the three could be improved, using examples from your state to illustrate your case.

Consider how these segments can improve their relationships with one another and how they can combine their services in order to be more marketable in your home state.

Determine the likely consequences of the introduction of gaming entertainment into your state, or if your state already allows gaming, the impact of significant economic expansion of the segment upon other segments of the hospitality industry.

Discussion, Business, Communication

2021/2/15 Topic: Class 17 Discussion: Effective Groups and Teams 1/3

This is a graded discussion: 100 points possible due Feb 16

Class 17 Discussion: Effective Groups and Teams Joseph Barnes

5 5

If I could turn back time, I would have spent far more time in college learning how to create effective groups and teams. This is so important to your career as a business leader, especially because we have far more remote groups and teams due to the pandemic. And it’s expected that more people will continue to work remotely than pre-pandemic times.

By the end of March 2020, over 100 countries had instituted some form of lockdown, confining millions of people to their homes ( and forcing many companies to ask their employees to work remotely. ( 2020)

Even though COVID-19 has added to the number of people working remotely, the World Economic Forum reports that an estimated 7% of employees in the US ( work/) already had the option to work from home before the pandemic arrived. This implies that the virus may have given a boost to a trend that was already moving in the direction of remote work. ( 2020)

Learning how to create and facilitate effective groups and teams is a critical skill for your success.

One step is understanding how the Gallup/Clifton Strengthsfinder assessment you took in BUAD 1000 comes into view. By making a group/team assignments on projects based on each person’s strengths, everyone can be more successful.

There is a difference between “groups” and “teams:”

“A group is a collection of individuals who coordinate their individual efforts. On the other hand, at team is a group of people who share a common team purpose and a number of challenging goals. Members of the team are mutually committed to the goals and to each other. This mutual commitment also creates joint accountability which creates a strong bond and a strong motivation to perform.” ( 2013)

Several elements make remote work different from the traditional work structure. Thus, remote work requires different skills from those needed in the typical work arrangement. For instance, remote work calls for better time management, the ability to follow written procedures, and the knack to communicate using information and telecommunication technologies effectively. ( 2020)

2021/2/15 Topic: Class 17 Discussion: Effective Groups and Teams 2/3

As a leader, it would be a mistake to think that since people already know what they should do in the office, it should be clear to them what is expected when working remotely. Thus, it is vital to ensure that everybody clearly knows what is expected. ( 2020)

A study published by the Harvard Business Review ( employees-found-that-remote-workers-feel-shunned-and-left-out) concluded that “remote workers feel shunned and left out.” If not appropriately managed, isolation and loneliness could become the basis for physiological and physical health challenges. ( 2020)

There is no dispute that you have to establish procedures and expectations for your remote team. However, this doesn’t mean that you are the only one who should develop them. It is for this reason that you should invite the team to participate when creating these rules. ( 2020)

When team members work in the same place as the manager, it’s easy for an employee to walk into the manager’s office and inquire about something. When working remotely, your team members may not always have an idea of where you are at a given time. Thus, you would want to be clear about how you will keep an open line of communication and remove any communication barriers ( risks/) . ( 2020)

One way of ensuring that communication happens regularly is to block certain times of the day [or week] and inform employees that they can book short sessions with you during those blocks. You could then have a calendar so that remote workers know which blocks are taken. ( 2020)

To ensure that everyone is clear about how communication will happen within the remote team, consider creating a communication strategy. This will determine the number of meetings you will have with your team. In the strategy, look at such issues as limiting noises in the background, decorum around what team members can have in their backgrounds during video calls, and the use of meeting templates ( one-meeting-template/) . ( 2020)

As for group and team meetings, I found having the following makes meetings far more effective:

Purpose of the Meeting Intended Results Agenda

When I use this structure I send out the information before a meeting so everyone is on the same page. And it works!!

Question: Using your group/team college experience thus far, and thinking about your reading, as a future business leader what do you think are the best group/team guidelines and why?

2021/2/15 Topic: Class 17 Discussion: Effective Groups and Teams 3/3

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Requirements for Discussion Assignments

1. You will not see discussion posts until you submit your post. 2. Please submit your post in the discussion text box. 3. Submit by the date and time on each discussion assignment. 4. Respond in detail to the discussion questions. 5. Submit a minimum of two well-thought out paragraphs. 6. Take into consideration the readings you have done in preparation for the class discussion,

and reference some of the reading material to support your points. 7. Include APA citations as necessary. 8. Feel free to comment on classmate posts. 9. Write down notes on what you said in your post so you can engage in class discussions.

Critical Elements POINTS

Composed of at least two, detailed, well thought-out paragraphs. 50

Responds to all of the assigned question(s) 25

Main Post: Takes into consideration the readings you have done in preparation for the class discussion, and reference some of the reading material to support your points.


Main Post: Includes APA citations and has no grammatical errors. 20 (2020) 27 Best Practices For Managing Remote Teams In 2020. Retrieved from: teams/ ( (2013) The difference between a group and a team. Retrieved from: difference-between-a-group-and-a.html ( to/growth-strategies/2013/06/the-difference-between-a-group-and-a.html)

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Assignment Clinic A

Assignment Question: The Social Impact Team

Following the format of a market research proposal, you are asked to propose and justify a research design to address the information gap stipulated in the client’s brief. You are expected to provide sound rationale for your methodological choices. Please ensure that your rationale is grounded in research theories and relevant academic references introduced to you in the lectures as well as in the reading list.


Market Research Proposal – Proposing Research Idea. Show a clear debrief of the client’s research need

Justification and Rationale – a sound rationale for a research design is one that:

Clearly address the information need of the client

Consistent – from Research Objectives – Methods

Grounded in Academic/Research Theories

Your Role: Marketing Research Agency

Information Gap – See Case Study




To what extent are students worry about issues of climate change (eco-anxiety)? To what extent does eco-anxiety lead to purchase intention of eco-friendly product?

What are student’s current perception and attitude towards eco-friendly consumption? What factors shape student’s eco-consciousness?

To what extent is student’s eco-consciousness associated with awareness of greenwashing? Similarly does a lack of eco-consciousness contribute to lack of awareness in greenwashing?

To what extent does student’s awareness of greenwashing shape their attitude towards eco-anxiety? Do students consider environmental issues to be the responsibility of individuals, businesses, government and/or systemic changes? To what extent do students consider their individual responsibility to be prominent vis-à-vis other stakeholders?

What roles do social media play (if any) in shaping perceptions of eco-consciousness and greenwashing?

Are there any differences in gender, age, cultural background, educational (types of degree and courses) in how students perceive greenwashing, eco-consciousness and perceived individual responsibility?



You do not have to address all the research gaps

Run through the list of questions and consider the type of information need. Consider whether:

There is a need to gain in-depth details or to measure existing relationships variables

Should this be an exploratory or a descriptive study?

Some of the questions can be done using both research design depending on your information need (whether you want an in-depth study or to make a conclusive measurement of interrelated variables)


EXPLORATORY- Qualitative

DESCRIPTIVE – Quantitative

Construct SMART objectives accordingly (to explore…., to determine)

Design either a QUALITATIVE OR QUANTITATIVE study to address the research question


Suggested Structure – Cover page


Design the Graphics of your Cover: Make it Professional


Insert Project Title

e.g. Consciousness & Greenwashing


The Social Impact Team

Name of your Marketing Research Agency

Address and Contact Details of your MR Agency

Insert Client’s Name

Background and Problem Definition (approximately 400 words)

A short paragraph debriefing the client’s research need

Why does the Social Impact Team (SIT) commission this research?

How will this research helps SIT to attain its UN Sustainable Goals

What are the ‘problem/opportunity definitions’?

What are the information gap?




Research Aims and Objectives (not included in wordcount)

Outline your research aim and objectives – SMART objectives

1-2 Broad Research Aim

3-6 interrelated specific research objectives


Sample broad and Specific Objectives (LAST YEAR Student’s Project)

BROAD Research Aim:

To explore UOL students’ (aged 18-30) perception of recycling whilst studying at the University of Leicester

To observe UOL students’ (aged 18-30) current recycling behaviour on the main University campus during the 2019 Spring Term

SPECIFIC Research Objectives:

To identify the key motivation and challenges influencing UOL students ‘(aged between 18-30) recycling habit on the University of Leicester main campus

To observe the extent to which the current day to day life of UOL students (aged 18-30) incorporate practices of recycling.

To understand how UOL students attribute personalised ‘values’ to practices of recycling in relation to the future sustainability of the planet.


Overview of Methodology (app. 100 words)

Are you using an exploratory or conclusive research design (CHOOSE ONE)? Why?

Are you proposing the use of a qualitative or quantitative research (CHOOSE ONE)? Why?

How does your research design allow you to address the research aim(s) and objectives stipulated above?


Data Collection Method (Qualitative) – 600 words

If you propose using qualitative research, what data collection methods would you use? Why?

If focus groups are used, what are the group compositions? Homogenous/Heterogenous? How many groups? Why? Duration of focus group?

If interviews are used, are your interviews structured, semi-structured or unstructured? Why? How long would your interview be?

If ethnography is used, what type of observations would you conduct? Why? Provide a brief explanation on how you intend to carry out your ethnographic fieldwork. For example, would you be using photograph, diary etc? How long and how often would you observe your participants?



Data Collection Method (QUANTITATIVE) – 600 words

If you are using a quantitative study, what variables are you measuring? In other words, what research objectives/hypothesis would you address in your questionnaire? Your hypothesis must be derived from existing study.


H1: Female is different to Male in terms of their eco-consciousness

How does a quantitative study allow you to address these hypothesis?

Is your survey structured, semi-structured or unstructured? Why?

How do you intend to distribute your questionnaire?


Sampling (app. 800)

First define your target population. Who are you going to research? How are you going to recruit them? What are your sampling criteria?

Next, outline what sampling technique you intend to use. Do you intend to use a probability or non-probability sampling technique? Why?

What sampling method do you intend to use and why?

Probability (random…..)

Non-Probability (convenient…..)


Provide an indication of your sample size (e.g. focus group – how many per group).


Timeframe (not included in wordcount

When submitting your research proposal, please provide a list of activities covering the period between April-September 2021.


Credentials (app. 100 words)

In a short paragraph, provide compelling rationale as to why you should win the bid!

Why should SIT consider your proposal?


Evaluation of Tender

The tenders will be evaluated based on the following criteria:


Clear rationale for a proposed area of study (see above)

Clear research aim and objectives

Clear definition of target sample and sampling technique

Effective research methodology, which address the research aim(s) and objectives. Clear justification must be provided for the proposed methodology

Ability to deliver promptly


Last Note

Make sure your methodological justifications are grounded in research method theories and references.

E.g. Our research agency proposed the use of focus group as this method enables the researcher to capture the group dynamics (Cattarell and Maclaran, 2007; Morgan 1998), which are particular important for a socially topical issue such as organ donation. In particular, capturing group dynamics are particularly important to enable us to gain in depth insight into donor’s social perception (Research Objective 2)

See suggested reading for particular topics

Enclose a list of reference you cited

No appendices are needed for this assignment (Questionnaire or interview guides – are the domain of Assessment B)


Useful Reading on Greenwashing and Eco-Consciousness

de Jong, Menno D.T ; Harkink, Karen M ; Barth, Susanne (2017), Making Green Stuff? Effects of Corporate Greenwashing on Consumers, Journal of business and technical communication, Vol.32 (1), p.77-112 (link)

Zhang, Lu ; Li, Dayuan ; Cao, Cuicui ; Huang, Senhua (2018), The influence of greenwashing perception on green purchasing intentions: The mediating role of green word-of-mouth and moderating role of green concern, Journal of cleaner production, Vol.187, p.740-750. (link)

Nam, Su-Jung (2020), Moderating effects of consumer empowerment on the relationship between involvement in eco-friendly food and eco-friendly food behaviour, International Journal of Consumer Studies.Vol. 44 (4): 297-305 (link)