Instructions for DQ Replies to 3 DQS


1- Each reply should be at least 200 words.

2- Minimum One scholarly reference ( NO MAYO CLINIC/ AHA)

3- APA 6th edition style needs to be followed.

4- Each response should have reference at the end of each reply

5- Reference should be within last 5 years



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by progressive pulmonary symptoms and is a serious health problem that constitutes the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. It is typified by changes in the airway caused by inflammatory reactions to inhaled irritants and pollutants (Bull, 2018, p. 671-672). The conditions are often linked with smoking, systemic inflammation, airflow limitation, and aging.

An essential feature of the primary prevention of COPD is the need to identify those at greatest risk for or in the earliest stages of COPD so that risk-mitigating interventions are possible. This includes identifying specific COPD subgroups, such as individuals with chronic bronchitis, those with α1-antitrypsin deficiency, or early radiographic changes with normal spirometry. Additionally, providing education about the health hazard of smoking and the benefits of cessation is necessary (Recio Iglesias, Díez-Manglano, López García, Almagro, & Varela Aguilar, 2020).

In secondary prevention, performing spirometry is the cornerstone of COPD diagnosis, and appropriate testing may reduce the number of undetected cases and diagnostic misclassification. A study conducted by Soumagne, Guillien, Roux, Laplante, Botebol, Laurent, Roche, Dalphin, & Degano (2020) to test the reliability of spirometry performed in primary health setting when compared to pulmonary function laboratory setting revealed that both are equally efficient and produced a reliable result.

According to Bull (2018), pulmonary rehabilitation as a part of tertiary prevention for COPD has been well established to alleviate the signs and symptoms of various pulmonary conditions and optimize functional capacity, improve exercise tolerance and quality of life.

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are particularly vulnerable to influenza, with evidence for increased incidence and infection severity. In this patient group, annual influenza inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine can be given from age 19 and beyond the age of 65 years while attenuated live influenza may be given annually from age 19 up to 49 years old only. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13) is recommended for all adults 65 years and older while the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23, Pneumovax) is indicated for patients age 19-64 years-old with chronic health conditions (Bull, 2018; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020)


Bull, A. (2018). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In A. Hollier (Ed.). Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed., pp. 671-672). Lafayette, LA: Advanced Practice Education Associates, Inc.

CDC (2020). Recommended adult immunization schedule for ages 19 years or older, United States, 2020. Retrieved from

Recio Iglesias J, Díez-Manglano J, López García F, Díaz Peromingo JA, Almagro P, & Varela Aguilar JM. (2020). Management of the COPD Patient with Comorbidities: An Experts Recommendation Document. International Journal of COPD, ume 15, 1015–1037.

Soumagne, T., Guillien, A., Roux, P., Laplante, J.-J., Botebol, M., Laurent, L., Roche, N., Dalphin, J.-C., & Degano, B. (2020). Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of spirometry for COPD screening in general practice. Respiratory Medicine and Research, 77, 31–36.