Action Planning and Implementation

Chapter 9:

Action Planning and Implementation

 

 

 

Chapter Overview

Change leaders have a “do it” attitude. Without action, nothing happens

 

Action planning involves planning the work and working the plan. “Right” decisions = approximately right, as you gain feedback and learn as you go

 

Action planning sorts out who does what, when, and how and tracks progress to promote learning and adaptation

 

Tools to help you manage the process are discussed

 

Successful change agents effectively engage others in the journey, develop detailed communication plans and the transition

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

2

 

The Change Path Model

Implementation planning that engages and empowers others

Action planning tools

Communications planning

Managing the transition and after-action review

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

3

 

 

Awakening

Chapter 4

 

 

Acceleration

Chapter 9

 

 

Institutionalization

Chapter 10

 

 

Mobilization

Chapters 5 through 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 Approaches to Decision Making and Action Taking

Thinking First

when the issue is clear and the context structured

 

Seeing First

when many elements have to be combined into creative solutions, commitment is key and communication across boundaries is essential. People need to see the whole before becoming committed.

 

Doing First

when situation is novel and confusing, complicated specifications would get in the way and a few simple rules can help people move forward

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

4

 

3 Generic Change Strategies

Change Type Characteristic Implementation Pitfalls
Programmatic Change Missions, plans, objectives Training, timelines, steering committees Lack of focus on behavior, one solution for all, inflexible solutions
Discontinuous Change Initiated from top, clear break, reorientation Decrees, structural change, concurrent implementation Political coalitions derail change, weak controls, stress from the loss of people
Emergent Change Ambiguous, incremental and challenging Use of metaphors, experimentation, and risk taking Confusion over direction, uncertainty, and possible slow results

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

5

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

Working Your Plan

Mobilize commitment to change through joint diagnosis of business problems

 

Develop a shared vision of how to organize and manage for competitiveness

 

Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it, and cohesion to move it along

 

Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top

 

Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems, and structures

 

Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the revitalization process

6

 

Working Your Plan

 

Think of a change situation you are familiar with. Return to Table 9.1 and consider whether it is a:

Programmatic change

Discontinuous change

Emergent change

 

How well was it handled? Was the appropriate approach or should it have been handled differently?

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

7

 

Steps to Effective Change—Beer et al.’s Six Steps

Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis

 

Develop a shared vision

 

Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it, and cohesion to move it along

 

Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top

 

Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems, and structures

 

Monitor and adjust strategies as you go

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

8

 

Jick’s Ten Commandments

Analyze the organization and its need for change

Create a vision and a common direction

Separate from the past

Create a sense of urgency

Support a strong leader role

Line up political sponsorship

Craft an implementation plan

Develop enabling structures

Communicate, involve people, and be honest

Reinforce and institutionalize change

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

9

 

Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process

Establish a sense of urgency

 

Create a guiding coalition

 

Develop a vision and strategy

 

Empower broad-based action

 

Communicate the change vision

 

Generate short-term wins

 

Consolidate gains and produce more change

 

Anchor new approaches in the culture

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

10

 

Lueck’s Seven Steps for Change

Identify the leadership

 

Focus on results, not activities

 

Start change at the periphery, then let it spread to other units, pushing it from the top

 

Institutionalize success through formal policies, systems, and structures

 

Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the change process

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

11

 

“No Plan Survives First Contact”

While it is critical to plan and anticipate, planning is a means not an end.

 

Don’t ignore vital emerging information just because it does not fit with carefully conceived plans.

 

Contingencies and alternative ways of approaching change are important contributors to enhanced adaptive capacity.

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

12

 

Action Planning Tools

To Do Lists—A checklist of things to do

 

Responsibility Charting—Who will do what, when, where, why, and how

 

Contingency Planning—Consideration of what should be done when things do not work as planned on critical issues. Tools to aid with this include decision tree analyses and scenario analyses

 

Flow Charting

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

13

 

Action Planning Tools (cont.)

Design Thinking

 

Surveys and Survey Feedback

 

Project Planning and Critical Path Methods for Scheduling

 

Tools that assess outcomes and stakeholders (discussed in Ch. 6), including:

Commitment Charts

The Adoption Continuum (AIDA)

Cultural Mapping

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

 

14

 

Action Planning Tools (cont.)

 

Leverage Analysis

 

Training and Development Tools

 

Diverse Change Approaches

 

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

 

15

 

Responsibility Charting

Decisions or Actions to be Taken Responsibilities
Susan Ted Sonja Relevant Dates
Action 1 R A I For meeting on Jan 14
Action 2 R I May 24
Action 3 S A A Draft Plan by Feb 17 Action by July 22
Etc…
Coding: R = Responsibility (not necessarily authority) A = Approval (right to veto) S = Support (put resources toward) I = Inform (to be consulted before action)

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

16

 

Project Planning

Organizing task to allow for parallel processes to occur has been shown to save time.

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

17

 

Level of Commitment to Action

Opposed to the Change

 

Neutral to the Change

 

Let It Happen (weak support)

 

Help It Happen

 

Make It Happen

 

LOW

HIGH

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

18

 

Stage of Adoption

Awareness

Becoming altered to the existence of something new, such as a product, service, or procedure

 

Interest

A growing inquisitiveness about the nature and benefits of the new idea

 

Desire/Appraisal

Studying strengths and weaknesses of new idea and its application to their area, followed by small-scale testing

 

Action/Adoption

Incorporating the new idea as part of the resources the adopter brings to their job

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

19

 

 

19

Crossing the Adoption Chasm

 

 

Innovators

Early Adopters

Early Majority

Late Majority

Laggards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Chasm or Tipping Point of Support That Needs to be Crossed

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

20

 

Commitment Chart

Key Players Level of Commitment Level of Understanding (high, med, low)
Opposed Strongly to Weakly Neutral Let It Happen Help It Happen Make It Happen
Person1 X O Med
Person 2 X O High
Person 3 X O Low
Etc…

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

21

 

Mapping People on the Adoption Curve

Key Players
Aware Interested Desire for Action Moving to Action or Adopting the Change
Person1 X O
Person 2 X
Person 3 X O
Etc…

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

22

 

Action Planning Checklist

Is the action plan consistent with the analysis, vision, and objectives?

 

Is your action plan realistic, given your influence, and the resources likely to be available to you?

 

Are you and your team committed, and do have the competence and credibility to implement the action steps? If not, how will you address this?

 

Is the plan time-sequenced in logical order?

 

Is it clear who will do what, when, where, and how?

 

What are the milestones and the probability of success at each step? Have you anticipated secondary consequences of your actions?

 

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

23

 

Action Planning Checklist (cont.)

 

 

Have you anticipated possible secondary consequences and lagging impacts your plans may have?

 

Have you developed contingencies for risk areas and for how to proceed if things go better or differently than anticipated?

 

Who does your plan rely on? Are they “on-side”? If not, what will it take to bring them “on-side”?

 

Does your action plan take into account the concerns of stakeholders and possible coalitions they might form?

 

Who (and what) could seriously obstruct the change? How will you manage them?

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

24

 

Communication Needs for Different Phases in the Change Process

Pre-Approval Phase Developing the Need for Change Phase Mid Stream Change Phase Confirming the Change Phase
Communication plans to sell top management Communication plans to explain the need for change, provide a rationale, reassure employees, and clarify the steps in the change process. Communication plans to inform people of progress and to obtain feedback on attitudes and issues, to challenge any misconceptions, and to clarify new organizational roles, structures, and systems. Communication plans to inform employees of the success, to celebrate the change, and to prepare the organization for the next change.

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

25

 

Communicating for Change

Message and media redundancy are key for message retention. Carefully consider the impact and use of social media and how others affected may use it

 

Face-to-face communication is most effective

 

Line authority is effective in communications

 

The immediate supervisor is key

 

Opinion leaders need to be identified and used

 

Employees pick up and retain personally relevant information more easily than other types of information

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

26

 

Influence Strategies for Change

Education and communication

 

Participation and involvement

 

Facilitation and support

 

Negotiation and agreement

 

Manipulation and co-option

 

Explicit and implicit coercion

 

Systemic adjustment

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

27

 

Toolkit Exercise 9.2—Action Plans for Influencing Reactions to Change

Which of the following strategies have you seen used to overcome resistance to action plans?

Education and communication?

Participation and involvement?

Facilitation and support?

Negotiation and agreement?

Manipulation and co-optation?

Explicit and implicit coercion?

Systemic adjustments?

 

What were the consequences of the methods?

 

Which of these methods are you most comfortable with using? Which do you have the skills to use?

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

28

 

Toolkit Exercise 9.3 (cont.) Additional Lenses on Influence Tactics

Inspirational appeals

 

Consultation: seeking the participation of others

 

Relying on the informal system: existing norms and relationships

 

Personal appeals: friendship, loyalty

 

Ingratiation: praise, flattery, friendliness

 

Rational persuasion: using data

 

Exchange or reciprocity

 

Coalition building

 

Using rules or legitimating tactics

 

Appeals to higher authorities

 

– Which of the above have you used? How successful were they?

– How comfortable are you with each method?

 

 

 

 

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

29

 

Push and Pull Tactics

Push Tactics

Use of facts, logic, and/or pressure (e.g., use of guilt and fear) to push people toward the change

 

Pull Tactics

Inspirational appeals and other influence tactics designed to attract and pull people toward the change

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

30

 

Implementation Tactics and Success

Tactic Percentage Use Initial Adoption Rate Ultimate Adoption Rate Time to Adopt (months)
Intervention 16% 100% 82% 11.2
Participation 20 81 71 19.0
Persuasion 35 65 49 20.0
Edict 29 51 35 21.5

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

31

 

A Checklist for Change: Transition Management

Transition Management: managing the implementation of the change project

 

 

How will the organization continue to operate as it shifts from one state to the next?

 

Who will answer questions about the proposed change? What decision power will they have?

 

Do the people in charge of the transition have the appropriate authority to make decisions necessary to ease the change?

 

Have we developed ways to reduce the anxiety created by the change and increase the positive excitement over it?

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

32

 

A Checklist for Change: Transition Management (cont.)

Have we worked on developing a problem-solving climate around the change process?

 

Have we thought through the need to communicate the change? Who needs to be seen individually? Which groups need to be seen together? What formal announcement should be made?

 

Have the people handling the transition thought about how they will capture the learning from the change process and share it?

 

Have we thought about how we will measure and celebrate progress and how we will bring about closure to the project and capture the learning so it is not lost (after-action review)?

 

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

33

 

What Makes for a Good Action Plan?

It can be done!

 

Organized as a timed sequence of conditional moves

 

Responsibility charts: who does what, when, why, how?

 

Measures and Outcomes are specified

 

The plan is consistent with analysis and objectives

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

34

 

What Makes for a Good Action Plan? (cont.)

Resources are available: money and people

 

Real “buy in” is there—involvement and public commitment, coalitions are considered

 

Early positives exist to help build momentum

 

Most importantly, you have the Vision and Goals needed to guide you in the right direction

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

35

 

Summary

“Doing it” demands a good plan and a committed team who will work that plan

 

Several strategies for approaching change and planning the work are discussed. Change agents, like good coaches, adjust as they go

 

Action planning tools are discussed

 

Effective action planning and implementation requires careful attention to communication and transition management

 

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

36

 

Schilling & Hill, 1998

Cycle

Time

Opportunity

Identification

Opportunity

Identification

Concept

Development

Concept

Development

Product Design

Product Design

Process Design

Process Design

Commercial

Production

Commercial

Production

Example 1

Example 2

 

Cycle Time

Opportunity

Identification

Opportunity

Identification

Concept

Development

Concept

Development

Product Design

Product Design

Process Design

Process Design

Commercial Production

Commercial Production

Example 1

Example 2