Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 7: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders – Part 1

Anatomists often use the analogy of a house to explain the human body, with skeletal systems, respiratory systems, and circulatory systems represented as a home’s framing structure, ventilation, and piping, respectively. Such analogies further emphasize the point that relationships between systems can result in complications when issues arise in one system.

With hundreds of diseases that can impact the brain, spine, and nerves, neurological disorders represent a complicated array of issues that present significant health concerns. Disorders such as strokes and Parkinson’s disease not only affect the nervous system, however; they can have secondary impacts in other areas, especially the musculoskeletal system.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of neurological disorders. You explore common disorders that impact these systems and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the li

Photo Credit: KATERYNA KON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Science Photo Library / Getty Images

Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders – Part 2

As homeowners know all too well, there is a continuous need for maintenance and repair. Some efforts are precautionary in nature, while others are the result of issues that surface over time.

Similarly, musculoskeletal disorders can develop over time. For some disorders, such as osteoporosis, precautionary treatments are a potential option. But much like issues that surface in a home over time, many musculoskeletal issues can be very serious concerns, and they can have a significant impact on patients’ lives.

This week, you continue to examine fundamental concepts of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. You explore common disorders that impact these systems and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Analyze processes related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders

· Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning

· Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

 

Learning Resources

Note: The below resources were first presented in Week 7. If you have previously reviewed them, you are encouraged to read or view them again here.

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 15: Structure and Function of the      Neurologic System
  • Chapter 16: Pain, Temperature Regulation,      Sleep, and Sensory Function (stop at Sleep); Summary Review
  • Chapter 17: Alterations in Cognitive Systems,      Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function (start at Acute confusional      states and delirium) (stop at Alterations in neuromotor functions);      (Parkinson’s Disease); Summary Review
  • Chapter 18: Disorders of the Central and      Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction (stop at      Degenerative disorders of the spine); (start at Cerebrovascular disorders)      (stop at Tumors of the central nervous system); Summary Review
  • Chapter 44: Structure and Function of the      Musculoskeletal System (stop at Components of muscle function); Summary      Review
  • Chapter 45: Alterations of Musculoskeletal      Function (stop at Bone tumors); (start at Disorders of joints); Summary      Review
  • Chapter 47: Structure, Function, and Disorders      of the Integument (section on Lyme Disease)

Chin, L. S. (2018). Spinal cord 

 

Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critically important component of disease and disorder diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the impact that that these two systems can have on each other. A variety of factors and circumstances affecting the emergence and severity of issues in one system can also have a role in the performance of the other.

Effective analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their mutual impact. For example, patient characteristics such as, racial and ethnic variables can play a role.

Photo Credit: jijomathai – stock.adobe.com

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

Patient is a 24-year-old female administrative assistant who comes to the emergency department with a chief complaint of severe right-sided headache. She states that this is the sixth time in the last 2 months she has had this headache. She says the headaches last 2–3 days and have impacted her ability to concentrate at work. She complains of nausea and has vomited three times in the last 3 hours. She states, “the light hurts my eyes.” She rates her pain as a 10/10 at this time. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen ease her symptoms somewhat but do not totally relieve them. No other current complaints.

Assignment ( 2-pages case study analysis) 3 citations reqiured. 

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

· Both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes that would account for the patient presenting these symptoms.

· Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

· How these processes interact to affect the patient.