Case Study 4, Chapter 31, Disorders Of Ventilation And Gas Exchange

Case Study 4, Chapter 31, Disorders of Ventilation and Gas Exchange; REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Norris, T. (2019). Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. 10th Ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 978-1-4963-7755-5


Emmanuel and his mother live in an urban community housing complex. The building is worn down and dirty from the urban dust, cockroaches, and mold. Emmanuel is 5 years of age and has suffered from asthma for the last 2 years. One evening, his mother poured him some milk and put him to bed. Shortly afterward, Emmanuel woke up wheezing and coughing. As he gasped for air, he became more and more anxious. His mother ran for his inhaler, but he was too upset and restless to use it. Emmanuel’s skin became moist with sweat, and as he began to tire, his wheezing became quieter. His mother called 911 and waited anxiously for the ambulance to arrive.

1. Emmanuel uses a corticosteroid inhaler for the management of his asthma. What is the mechanism of action of this drug? How is its action different from the β2-agonist inhalants?

2. Why does someone with severe asthma become physically fatigued during a prolonged attack? What are the physiologic events that occur during an attack?

3. One of the complications of respiratory fatigue is the development of hypercapnia. How does the body compensate for an increase in CO2? What are the effects of hypercapnia on the central nervous system?

Please be brief with your answers-do not copy answers from the book-read the case study and answer in your own words-briefly! You are not required to cite as your answers should come from your textbook-it is a demonstration that you understand the content and the case study.

Follow this example; Example;

Case Study, Chapter 4, Genetic Control of Cell Function and Inheritance Marsha and Clement are both carriers of sickle cell anemia, a disease that is autosomal recessive. Their first child, Amelia, does not have the disease. Marsha and Clement are planning another pregnancy, but they are concerned about their second child having the condition. Clement’s father died from complications of sickle cell disease shortly before Amelia was born

1. What is the likelihood of Marsha and Clement having a baby with sickle cell anemia? What is the chance the baby will be a carrier of the disease, just like the parents?

The gene is recessive, so the parents will have a 25% chance of giving birth to a child with the disease. There is a 50% chance that the baby will be a carrier

2. Marsha suggested to the nurse at the local family planning clinic that if the baby were a boy, he might have a higher risk of developing the disease, just like his grandfather. How would you respond?

The disease is autosomal in nature, meaning the disease arises from an abnormality on chromosomes 1 to 22. These chromosomes are alike in both males and females.

4. When Amelia, who does not have sickle cell anemia, grows up and marries someone who does have the disease, how likely will her children have the disease?

If Amelia has children to a father with sickle cell disease, the children will be carriers only.