Sample paper: Children Development

Piaget’s theory plays an essential role in describing the stages in which children undergo to reach a full human intelligence. This model provides four stage which includes sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Based on the video, the children advocated in this video are in third stage which is a concrete operational stage of 7-11 years of age (Babakr, Mohamedamin & Kakamad, 2019). This is because most of the children described in the video use inductive reasoning which helps in building a concrete operational mental structure. For instance, many children were able to presume that murder is not en ethical thing in the society and were worried about the death of Martin Luther. Therefore, this study evaluates the Piaget’s theory in regard to the frontline video.

How do you see self-fulfilling prophecy and learned helplessness portrayed in this video?

According to the video, Jane Elliot portrayed a generosity by giving all what she had possessed with an aim of widening diversification knowledge on how to curtail racism among the children in school. The prophesy is however fulfilled on a section of the children who had the idea of the eye of storm concept that states that people with blue and brown eyes are equal and should be treated with equally without any form of discrimination. However, the learning did not showcase much help since many people didn’t have the access to information and hence the chances of them of practicing racism is high. For instance, in the video, one of the Elliot’s student was teased when she played with another black student. This action made the blackstudent feel bad due to discrimination portrayed against her.

How was the self-esteem of the children affected by participating in this study?

The participation of the children in this study affected greatly their self-esteem. For instance, most of the children’s self-esteem reduced since brown eye children were subjected to discriminatory acts and were considered to be inferior as compared to the blue eye children. In the second experiment, the teacher interchanged the children and assigned blue eyes those whohad brown eyes initially. This in turn ignited conflict and prejudice among the children and hence lowering their self-esteem. However, upon understanding the relevance of the study, the children started to understand that they are equal to each other regardless of their color and race. This in turn increased their self-esteem. Due to this, the children were able to study together happily which in turn necessitated increase of their score.

Why do you think the children’s test scores rose after participating in this experiment?

One of the factor that made the children’s test score to rose was due to repeat of the experiment. The second experiment saw the children interacting the eye colors and understood that everyone is equal to each other and hence should be treated fairly and equally. Second, the children were able to study and learn together happily. This was due to the fact that many children understood that the experiment was just for learning purposes and it wasn’t meant to discriminate anyone. Their cordial relationship was regained again, their self-esteem improvedand hence they were able to concentrate on their studies. The children could also help each other without prejudice which in turn necessitated the increase of their test score.

How can you use Piaget’s theory and Kohlberg’s theory to explain the adult and children’s behavior during this study?

Piaget’s theory asserts that children pass through four significant stages of mental development from childhood to adulthood. This theory focus on understanding how children can acquire knowledge and how to nature their intelligence. On the other hand, Kohlberg’s theoryfocus on how children develop morality and moral reasoning. This theory argues that moral development takes place in three levels of moral reasoning which includes pre-conventional, conventional and post conventional reasoning (Walker, 2020). The personal development involves different stages where children reacts in accordance on how they are taught by their parents and teachers. Based on the video, many children responded positively based on the content they were taught by Elliot. This can also be observed by the adult green collection facility when Elliot paid them a visit during training. As part of the society, I can apply both Piaget’s theory and Kohlberg’s theory by teaching children and adults using an experiment that comprise of a positive impact. This is because they will be able to react to these teaching until their old age even at the work place.

Which theory (theories) of personality can help us understand the students’ behavior in this video? Find at least one resource to support your answer.

One of the theories of personality that can help student’s behavior in this video is Allport’s theory. This theory argues that the uniqueness of the people and the internal cognitive and motivational processes that influences their behavior (Ford, 2013). The theory also assets that biological personality is influenced mostly by birth and the surrounding experience. Based on the video, it can be noted that children inherited actions from their teachers and parents. For instance, white children hate their black counterparts due to the myths and bad perception from their parents. Upon various briefings and experiments, Jane Elliot was able to motivate the children and convinced them that they should treat each other fairly and equally as everyone is equal regardless of their color and race.


It can be noted that parents and teachers plays a great role in enhancing cognitive development of children and their mental status. Based on the video, the experiment conducted by the teacher regarding brown and blue eyes ignited a hatred and discriminatory actions among the children. However a lengthy discussion between the teacher and children, the children were able to understand the importance of treating each one fairly and equally and observing cohesion and good relationship which in turn can improve their score test.


Babakr, Z. H., Mohamedamin, P., & Kakamad, K. (2019). Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory: Critical Review. Education Quarterly Reviews2(3), 517-524.

Ford, D. Y. (2013). Multicultural issues: Gifted underrepresentation and prejudice—learningfrom Allport and Merton. Gifted Child Today36(1), 62-67.

Walker, L. J. (2020). The character of character: The 2019 Kohlberg memorial lecture. Journal of Moral Education49(4), 381-395.

Discussion: Alzheimer\’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a mental disorder that occurs among the middle and old aged people. It occurs because of the degeneration of the brain cells and it’s considered as the maincause of premature senility. This disease does not just target one group of people, whether rich or poor, famous or unknown. The disease affect the brain by disconnecting brain cells, degenerating them and eventually due and hence destroying memory and other significant mental functions. The following video shows some of the celebrities who has succumbed from Alzheimer’s disease

Among the people who succumbed from Alzheimer’s disease from the video is Ronald Reagan who was e 40th president of the U.S from 1981-1989. Before becoming a president, Reagan was a famous Hollywood actor who was featured in many movies. He died in 2004 due to Alzheimer’s disease.

Aducanumab has been approved as the sole medication that can help to treat Alzheimer’s disease. It is a human antibody and immunotherapy that target the protein beta-amyloids (Selkoe, 2019). The administration of Aducanumab drug helps to reduce amyloid plagues which are considered as the main brain lesions related to the Alzheimer’s disease. The administration of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy is also considered as the best approach that can help to reduce the prevalence of amyloid plagues in the brain cells.

A research done by Alzheimer’s Association (2019) showed that for many people with this disease and those who has a late onset variety, symptoms appears in their mid-60s. The study also showed the early onset of the Alzheimer’s disease begins between 30 years and 60 years. The study also showed that about 3% of people aged 65-70 years are suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. This implies that although the disease affects other age young and middle aged groups, old aged people are mostly affected and hence preventive measures should be centered on this age group.


Alzheimer’s Association. (2019). 2019 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & dementia15(3), 321-387.

Selkoe, D. J. (2019). Alzheimer disease and aducanumab: adjusting our approach. Nature Reviews Neurology15(7), 365-366.

Discussion: How do I know if a medication was omitted during a change of shifts?

How do I know if a medication was omitted during a change of shifts?

A medication/drug omission is referred as the event where appropriate medication is not provided to the patient because medication was not prescribed or was not administered. As a nurse or any medical personnel, I can know if medication was omitted during a change of shifts if some relevant reports were not recorded in the shift report. Some of the significant reports that should be captured during the change of shift includes the patient’s medical history, current medication, pain level and management among the patient as well as the discharge instructions among others (Dirik et al., 2019). Provision of these details regarding a patient at the end of the shift can help to reduce the risk of oncoming nurse putting patient in the medication risk such as wrong administration of drugs. Therefore, if these details are not captured at the end of the shift, I can know of the medication was omitted.

As a medical practitioner, I would address this problem by ensuring a proper implementation of medication administration which includes right dosage and proper recording of any medication procedure. Second, I would ensure nurses complete an accurate documentation when a patient receives medical treatment to avoid omission errors. The need of accountability and ethics should also be instilled to the nurses to ensure they adhere to the medical guidelines which in turn can ensure that proper medication and also accurate documentation in the shift report. Educating nurses on the importance of these aspects can help to reduce any medication and omission errors.


Dirik, H. F., Samur, M., Seren Intepeler, S., & Hewison, A. (2019). Nurses’ identification and reporting of medication errors. Journal of clinical nursing28(5-6), 931-938.

Discussion: How are biases depicted in the articles?

How are biases depicted in the articles?

It is prudent to note that everyone has a biases which are mostly concerned with implicit biases. Implicit biases are referred as the attitudes and stereotypes that people inconclusively use to fill in gaps based on their own experience which in turn helps them to make viable decisions. Notably, biases are considered to reside in our subconscious but in many cases they are faulty and should be addressed since they affect decisions made both professionally and personally.

Biases are depicted in the two articles in that they present a one sided view of the controversial issue of effect of bias where the authors dwell on their opinions without giving equal time to the opposing viewpoint of the biasness. For instance, Satel & Klick (2006) article argued that biases in medical landscape occurs mostly due to discrimination in terms of race, gender and ethnicity. This is called biased doctor model which asserts that many doctors in U.S treat white patients more efficiently and appropriately than minority patients in regard to their race. On the other hand, Kenston (2020) article depict bias as an implicit bias which occurs when people have attitudes towards others and related stereotypes without a conscious knowledge.

Identify the biases within the articles.

The Satel & Klick (2006) identify two types of biases that affects the medical settings. These are biased-doctor mode and third factors. The biased-doctor model” of treatment disparities emphasize on overt and subtle racial discrimination where doctors treat white peoplemore effectively than black people and other minority groups. On the other hand, the third factor bias are correlated with race which affects the level of care provision in the healthcare settings. These third factors includes variation in insurance coverage, quality of medical professionals, regional disparities in medical settings, characteristics of the patients such as health literacy and clinical features of diseases among others.

The Kenston (2020) article identify implicit bias as the main bias that affects individuals. In regard to medical settings, the author argues that implicit bias among the doctors occurs when they have attitude towards people or associate stereotypes with them without their conscious knowledge. The authors also provided other types of biases that affects individual in their daily lives such as confirmation bias, gender, beauty and racial bias. These types of biases can results to unequal distribution of resources and provision of services and hence igniting a poor relationship among the people.

How are biases being seen in the healthcare industry?

In healthcare industry, implicit bias is considered as the main issue facing many healthcare professionals as it influence the way medical professionals interact and relate with patients. Since everybody is prone to the implicit bias, these insensible preconceptions are likely to seep into the patient provider communication which in turn results to the poor medical delivery. Biases in healthcare are seen in different forms. The first one being racial discrimination where patients are treated based on their race and skin color. For instance, in U.S, white patients are given quality and better treatment as compared to the black and other minority groups. This shows racial discrimination in medical sector which hinders patients from minority groups to access quality and equitable medical services.

Another form of bias in medical sector is based on the variation of the insurance coverage. This involves whether patients are insured or uninsured and profit and nonprofit health plans. With this, patients are discriminated based on whether they have medical cover or not as many clinicians prefer to treat patients with insurance cover (Wu, Lin & Tan, 2017). Regional variation in medical practices also affects provision of medical services to the patients. These includes overuse and underuse of medical resources which has a negative consequences to the patient’s health outcome.


Kenston H. (2020). Conscious Decision-Making: Become Aware of Your Inner Storyteller.|A638880031&v=2.1&it=r&sid=GCCO&asid=c6b4e607

Satel, S., & Klick, J. (2006). Are doctors biased? Policy Review, (136), 41.

Wu, Z., Lin, Z., & Tan, Y. (2017, December). A Theory of Information Biases on Healthcare Platforms. In Workshop on E-Business (pp. 94-108). Springer, Cham.

Discussion: Invisible Disabilities Case Analysis

Invisible Disabilities Case Analysis

Invisible disabilities are defined as the disabilities that are not immediately apparent, but are typically chronic illness and conditions that significantly impair normal activities of the infected person. The symptoms of invisible disability includes chronic illness and pains, injuries and birth disorders among others but they are not always obvious to the onlooker (Atkinson, 2018). In the public consciousness, disabilities in many cases are greatly defined as something physical. However, invisible disabilities in many cases are not recognizable in the crowd and the patients can fade into the crowd with their condition. Various studies has shown that many patients with invisible disabilities are likely to experience digression and anxiety disorders while trying to hide their condition. Many patients with invisible disability are isolated and does not engage and interact with people more often which in turn causes distress and other mental issues.

Ramon’s experience of invisible disabilities has seen him experiencing depression and anxiety disorders due to her inability to hear well. Ramon was hospitalized and discovered that his Eustachian tubes were bent which in turn resulted to the muffled hearing on the right side. However, his mother argued that due to his race and ethnicity, the doctor who was white didn’t notice the issue when he was a baby and hence worsening Ramon’s hearing problem. Her mother reported skepticism and distrust on the medical community as some of the factors that worsened Ramon’s hearing issue. This was due to discrimination and biases among the doctors to the minority groups (Alcalá & Cook, 2018). The hearing problem also lowered the Ramon’s self-esteem when in school. In many cases, he didn’t wear his learning aid since it made himselfconscious around his colleagues. Additionally, Ramon sat on the right side of the class where he could hear well and in cases where he couldn’t hear well, he couldn’t participate fully in the class. This in turn caused fear and anxiety regarding test taking and social interactions.

Apart from invisible disability of hearing problem, Ramon experienced other psychological challenges that contributed further to his deteriorated wellbeing. Firstly, the white doctor didn’t notice the issue early because of Latino and African identity. This implies that racial discrimination and biases among the doctors affected the medical provision which in turn deteriorated Ramon’s health. Another problem intersecting problem that contributed to a further oppression is that the college and career counselor at the high school argued that college was not the future for Ramon. Due to this, Raman and his mother, Angela felt that the counsellor undermined him and considered him worthless which in turn lowered his self-esteem. Fear and anxiety were also some of the issues that affected Ramon’s health. This resulted from his low self-esteem to undertake test score and also interact with other people as he didn’t want people to recognize his condition.

As a social worker, I would engage Ramon and advise him to accept his condition as many people are suffering the same problem and has accepted their fate. By accepting his fate will allow him to wear his wearing aid in the classroom and also interact with his peers freely. This in turn can help to improve his self-esteem, improve his self-conscious around his peers, and remove fear and anxiety and hence improving his test scores in the class as argued by Norstedt (2019). Another way I would intervene in this case is to advise Ramon to concentrate in his studies. This can help him improve his test score and gain respect and recognition from his peers and hence reducing anxiety and distress. Interacting with his peers and friends can also help improve his mental stability and hence reducing the cases of social isolation and feeling of extreme worrisome.


Alcalá, H. E., & Cook, D. M. (2018). Racial discrimination in health care and utilization of health care: a cross-sectional study of California adults. Journal of general internal medicine33(10), 1760-1767.

Atkinson, M. (2018). Invisible disabilities. In Sport, Mental Illness, and Sociology. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Norstedt, M. (2019). Work and Invisible Disabilities: Practices Experiences and Understandings of NonDisclosureScandinavian Journal of Disability Research21(1), 14-24.

Discussion: Spirituality and Social Work Practice

Spirituality and Social Work Practice

Based on the pervasiveness of religion and spirituality in people’s daily lives, social workers ought to understand the aspects of religion and spirituality in order to develop a holistic view of the clients and their environment and support the professional mission of enhancing satisfaction of basic needs and their wellbeing (Kvarfordt & Herba, 2018). This implies that religion is considered as a foundation upon which people’s lives are built and hence should not be neglected when handing the challenges facing different clients. As a social worker, I would include the issue of religion and spirituality in the initial assessment of Najeeb. This is because religion plays a greater role in the life of Najeeb and his inability to walk to the mosque for worship has caused depression and hopelessness. The importance of including the issue of religion and spirituality in this case is to engage Najeeb and advise him to focus on health recovery so that he can resume going to the mosque. I would advise him that since he is experiencing mobility difficulties, he should enroll to rehabilitation and therapy center for medical treatment to recover fully. By doing this, he can be able to go to the mosque again and also get time to engage and socialize with other people and hence reducing any cases of depression and hopelessness.

One of the strategy I would use to ensure that my personal values does not influence my practice with Najeeb is developing self-awareness. This involves taking a comprehensive account of my feelings, values, attitudes and behaviors and also observing the actions and statements of my client (Oxhandler, Polson & Achenbaum, 2018). Developing self-awarenesswill also help me to avoid steering Najeeb in the direction of my opinions and also maintain a helpful attitude that will ensure balance of religious and other social life. This will also help me to be honest with myself about my values and biases in counselling. This in turn will help to instill a greater sense of self awareness and avoid any chances of inducing my personal values to Najeeb.

Another strategy I would apply to ensure my values does not influence my practice with Najeeb is maintaining a neutral position. As argued by Ashley (2020) sharing clients values can help to enhance efficient treatment practices since many clients would like to feel accepted and understood by social workers. Based on the importance of spirituality and religion to Najeeb, I wouldn’t advise him on any controversy of the religion but rather I would help him underratedthat although religion is important to him, he should consider his health first. By recovering fully, he can resume doing to mosque and interact with other people well.

The crisis facing Najeeb are depression and hopelessness which are caused by his inability to walk and socialize with peers due to health constraints. However, these challengingbe addressed by offering medical services to Najeeb by enrolling him to either nursing home or home based care. Offering medical therapy can help to improve his health outcome and regain strength to ambulate. This in turn can help him to engage in daily ritual prayers the way he used to and also engage with his peers. Another approach I would use to help Najeeb is to connect him with non-governmental and humanitarian organizations to purchase him a car that can help him to navigate in different places freely and efficiently. Since Najeeb does not own a car and public transportation is difficult to navigate, having a car can help him attend his daily prayer rituals in the mosque and also engage with his peers. This in turn can help to improve his psychological functioning and hence reducing the cases of depression and hopelessness.


Ashley Miller. (2020). How Not to Impose Your Values on Clients.

Kvarfordt, C. L., & Herba, K. (2018). Religion and spirituality in social work practice with children and adolescents: A survey of Canadian practitioners. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal35(2), 153-167.

Oxhandler, H. K., Polson, E. C., & Achenbaum, W. A. (2018). The religiosity and spiritual beliefs and practices of clinical social workers: A national survey. Social work63(1), 47-56.

Sample paper: Labor Shortage in Restaurant Industry


It is prudent to not that reports about labor shortages in the restaurant industry are not new as the industry has been facing a great challenge of shortage of labor especially during the covid-19 period. For instance, a research done by Meisenzahl (2021) showed that leisure and hospitality sector in Arizona employed 45,000 fewer people in 2021 than it did in 2020. The report also showed that across the United States, the number of people employed in food service dropped by more than 2 million between February 2020 and March 2021. Following the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the restaurant industry has been hit by labor shortages due to the restrictions imposed by the government to contain the spread of the pandemic.  After many workers were laid off at the beginning of the pandemic, many bartenders, cooks and servers moved to other industries and hence creating a shortage of laborers.

Reasons of labor shortage in restaurant industry.

Job insecurity in fast food restaurants has been considered as one of the key cause of the labor shortage in the recent times amid the covid19 pandemic. Many restaurants were closed for a long time while others were closed indefinitely after the outbreak of the pandemic and hence leaving many people unemployed (Bäckström, 2021). Now, as restaurants are opening their businesses fully, many of them are offering former employees their jobs back while many formerworkers moved to other industries and hence creating a labor shortage in the industry. This implies that the combination of instability, shortened hours and low payment are some of the factors that made many workers to look for other opportunities.

Low payment to the workers is another leading cause of labor shortage in the fast food restaurant industry. For instance, restaurants in United States and many countries, many restaurants pay their workers less than $15 an hour which implies that these workers can make more on unemployment, save money on gas and not risk contracting covid19. Additionally, newly reduced working hours makes the payment less attractive and hence many workers are not interested at working in restaurants (Zainol et al., 2020). Increased competition from well-payingjobs such as manufacturing industry, self-employment and freelancing jobs has seen many workers shifting from restaurant industry to these sectors and hence creating an overall labor shortage in the industry.

Toxic work culture and unconducive working environment is another significant factor that has resulted to labor shortage in restaurant industry. Many restaurants provides unfavorable working which forces workers to look for other favorable jobs. For instance, long working hours has been one of key challenge facing the workers as many employees are forced to wake up early to work and return back at home at late hours. Additionally, despite long working hours, workers are paid low wages (Rasool et al., 2021). Other unfavorable working conditions in restaurantsincludes abuse by the seniors such as increased cases of sexual harassment, lack of support from management on and off the job as well as non-existence work life balance. Due to this, many workers prefer to work in other industries that provides favorable working conditions and hence creating a labor shortage in the industry.

Unethical behavior among the customers has also been considered as another significant factor that has led to the increased labor shortage in the fast food restaurants. Many restaurant workers has been complaining about hostile customers who politicized covid19 to the employer’s disregard for their safety while others visit restaurants with mental issues and family conflicts and they impose their issues to the workers. Additionally, enforcing mask mandates led to the disgruntled customers who tipped poorly while others became physically combative with the services offered by the workers.  Lack of support from the management due to the unethical behavior of customers has demoralized many workers and seek either formal employment where they can get job security or self-employment where they can handle hostile customers based on their working policies and regulations. This in turn has led to the lack of enough workers and hence creating a working gap in the restaurant industry.

How to solve the problem of labor shortage in restaurant industry

Good people are hard to find and keep them in the restaurant industry owing the increased challenges facing the industry. Even before the covid19 pandemic, recruitment and retention of employees has been a major challenges in the restaurant industry and the outbreak of the pandemic has ushered a significant changes in the industry. Taking advantage of the advanced technology can help to solve the problem of labor shortage. Technologies such as Orderlivery helps to improve efficiency while enhance efficient working with few employees. The adoption of advanced technologies can help to streamline the dining experience where the customers can make their order and pay at their convenience and also help to reduce the number of servers needed on the floor (Bowen & Morosan, 2018). For instance, the adoption of orderlivery technology allows customers to order for food and drinks while the servers can focus on hospitality aspects such as talking ad connecting with customers, offering menu advice and also checking on the meals among others. This implies that adoption of automation and other tech based services can help guests to order foods and drinks when they are ready and not having to wait to be served. This in turn can help reduce the challenge of labor shortage and allow restaurants to operate efficiently with few number of workers.

Another approach that can help to curtail the shortage of labor force in restaurant industry is offering employee benefits and incentives. As argued by Jaworski et al (2018) offering incentives and benefits to the employees shows that employers care about their welfare, their health and their future. In this case, employee benefit package can help to attract and retain their talents and also motivate employees to continue working with the company. Many big restaurants such as Sheetz has opted to offer various types of sign-on bonuses to get people to come in the door. Provision of employee benefits also helps to provide support to the employee’s families, health and financial future which in turn can help to attract ad retain top talents. Additionally, increasing the wages and salaries to the employees can help to attract new employees while also retaining the existing ones. The average wage cost for restaurant employees is $15 per hour. However, increasing this to about $25 can help to attract more workers and hence solving the challenge of shortage of workers in the industry.

Controlling employee attrition rate is also another approach that can help to curb the issue of labor shortage in the restaurant industry. The restaurant and hospitality industry is considered to have the highest attrition across the world. The attrition related costs for the restaurant industry includes recruiting and training new employees and operational efficiency. Increased competition, long working hours and foraying for employment opportunities in other places are some of the factors that has led to the cases of attrition (Ram, 2018). This implies that high attrition rate is one of the leading cause of towering restaurant labor cost. Thus, provision of better growth opportunities to the employees as well as offering incentives and launching worker’s loyalty program while also improving working culture can help to control attrition rate and hence enhancing employee retention rate in the restaurants.

Cross training the workforce team is also another approach that can help to solve the problem of labor shortage in the restaurant industry. As argued by Vasanthi & Basariya (2018)cross training ensures that workers are trained and equipped with efficient knowledge on how to handle multiple tasks. This ensures that the workforce can handle different tasks within the restaurant and also lead to the growth of their professional capabilities. This implies that cross training improves working efficiency, develop working empathy as well as provision of team building opportunities within the organization. Avoiding discrimination within the premises, providing reasonable accommodation, avoiding sexual harassment can also help to improve the working relationship between the employees and the employers and hence enhancing their retention rate. This in turn can help to curtail the shortage of workers through attraction of new talents.


This study has noted that the outbreak of covid19 pandemic has seen restaurant industry facing a great challenge of shortage of labor due to the restrictions imposed by the government to contain the spread of the pandemic.  After many workers were laid off at the beginning of the pandemic, many bartenders, cooks and servers moved to other industries and hence creating a shortage of laborers. Some of the factors that has led to the shortage of labor force in the restaurant industry includes job insecurity, low payment, Toxic work culture and unconducive working environment and Unethical behavior among the customers. However, these problem can be solved by embracing technologies such as Orderlivery that helps to improve efficiency while enhance efficient working with few employees. Other measures includes offering employee benefits and incentives, cross training the workforce team and controlling employee attrition rate. Avoiding discrimination within the premises, providing reasonable accommodation, avoiding sexual harassment can also help to improve the working relationship between the employees and the employers and hence enhancing their retention rate.


Bäckström, M. (2021). Reasons to change field of work and leave restaurant industry.

Bowen, J., & Morosan, C. (2018). Beware hospitality industry: the robots are coming. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes.

Jaworski, C., Ravichandran, S., Karpinski, A. C., & Singh, S. (2018). The effects of training satisfaction, employee benefits, and incentives on part-time employees’ commitment. International Journal of Hospitality Management74, 1-12.

Mary Meisenzahl. (2021). the fast food industry is in crisis, and it’s only getting worse.

Ram, Y. (2018). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism21(7), 760-774.

Rasool, S. F., Wang, M., Tang, M., Saeed, A., & Iqbal, J. (2021). How toxic workplace environment effects the employee engagement: the mediating role of organizational support and employee wellbeing. International journal of environmental research and public health18(5), 2294.

Vasanthi, S., & Basariya, S. R. (2018). Employee Cross Training and its Impact on Employee Performance. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology9(6), 800-806.

Zainol, N., Abdullah, D. D., Rozali, A. R. A., Bahari, K. A., & Kamal, S. B. M. (2020). Issues on job mobility in restaurant industry: Study on salary, work environment and promotions. Jurnal Intelek15(2), 174-184.

Counseling with Gloria Paper:

Counseling with Gloria Paper

The three therapist involved in the Gloria session are Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers and Albert Ellis. The three therapist demonstrate different psychotherapeutic ideas when engaging with Gloria. For instance, Fritz Perls provides the gestalt therapy while Carl Rogers provides person centered therapy. On the other hand, Ellis provides behavioral therapy. One of the similarity between these three therapies is that they aim to improve the affairs of the client, enhance their mental functioning as well as improving the wellbeing (Delgadillo & Gonzalez Salas Duhne, 2020). Another similarity between these therapies is that they involve ascertaining cognitive behavior of the client where the therapist identify the thoughts and behaviors of the Gloria regarding her relationship to the surrounding and how to influence her thoughts and behaviorsfor the better. However, the three therapies has different differences. For instance, gestalt therapy involves increasing client’s awareness, freedom and self-direction and it focus on the present rather than past experiences. The person centered therapy by Carl Rogers involved much talk from the client and the therapist focus on the client rather than the problem. Based on the Gloria case, the therapist aimed to help Gloria achieve greater independence and allow her cope with any current and future problems she may face. Behavioral therapy on the other hand differs with the two therapies in that the therapist (Ellis) focused on treating mental disorder and any anxiety disorder affecting the client.

Freud described trauma as the excitations that comes from outside which are worth to break through the protective shield where there is no possibility of preventing the mental apparatus from being flooded with large amount of stimulus. Based on the childhood development, Feud believed that childhood personality is developed through a series of stages in which the pleasure seeking energy of the child is focused on various erogenous areas (Bulut, 2019). The e also alluded that child’s personality comprise of three elements which are id, ego and superego which works together to create a complex human behaviors and they are caused by the development of childhood trauma. On the other hand, Erikson believed that children who experience neglect at their early ages tend to develop mistrust in their relationship as adults due to the negative perception regarding parental relationship (Maree, 2021). This implies that childhood trauma can affects developmental growth of children which in turn leads to development of mental disorder at the later age. According to Erikson, the childhood trauma leads to the development of various psychological development from childhood to the adulthood where the individual experience psychological crisis during each stage that has positive or negative outcome to their personal development.

If I had similar situation to Gloria’s, I would choose Carl Rogers therapy which is gestalt therapy. This form of therapy is focused on increasing client’s awareness, freedom and self-direction. This therapy is important as it focus on the present situation rather than past experience and hence it’s based on the idea that people’s behavior are influenced by the present environment(Joseph, 2020). Among the three therapists, Gloria selected Carl Rogers. This is because Carl Rogers was very aggressive to Gloria and his questions to Gloria was straightforward which made Gloria say her deep thoughts. After watching the whole video, Carl Rogers caught my attention as it makes the client to speak out of what is in their deep minds and speak out all the issues affecting their wellbeing. Additionally, what I liked about Carl Rogers is the use ofgenuineness, accurate emphatic to understand the cognitive behavior of the client. The therapistencouraged Gloria to be herself and focus on self-development to improve her wellbeing and also know various mechanisms of dealing with life challenges. Therefore, Carl Rogers’s therapy is of great importance as it helps clients in their growth process and also enhance them to cope up with current and future life challenges.

The major difference between cognitive behavioral therapy and humanistic therapy is that the former focus on observable actions such as patient’s behavior while the latter focus on the human beings as a whole such as their inner feelings and their mental processes. As argued by Renger & Macaskill (2021) humanistic therapy involves creation of a strong therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the patient. This is achieved through genuineness, warmth, empathy and unconditional support to the patient to enhance their wellbeing. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy involves helping the patient to restructure their thoughts and tailor their responding behavior. This in turn helps to improve the relationship of the patients with others and also develop positive mechanisms on how to relate and engage with other people in the community. As a therapist, I would use the two approaches to gain a cognitive information about the patient, create a friendly environment for our conversation and also help the patient develop a positive perspective about any present and future challenges he/she may be facing. This in turn will be helpful to improve their wellbeing and also help treat their mental disorders


Bulut, S. (2019). Freud’s Approach to Trauma. Am J Psychiatry152(12), 1705-1713.

Delgadillo, J., & Gonzalez Salas Duhne, P. (2020). Targeted prescription of cognitive–behavioral therapy versus person-centered counseling for depression using a machine learning approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology88(1), 14.

Joseph, S. (2020). Why we need a more humanistic positive organizational scholarship: Carl Rogers’ person-centered approach as a challenge to neoliberalism. The Humanistic Psychologist48(3), 271.

Maree, J. G. (2021). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: critical overview. Early Child Development and Care191(7-8), 1107-1121.

Renger, S., & Macaskill, A. (2021). Developing the foundations for a learning-based humanistic therapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 00221678211007668.

Discussion: Medical Futility controversy

Medical Futility controversy

Medical futility is one of the ethically controversial issue in nursing practices since some physicians summarily claim a treatment is futile yet they are considered as the option to give hope to life to the patients. However, the legal understanding about medical futility is of great essence to the medical practitioners to understand when a treatment can be considered futile. The research question related to this issue is:

What are the core legal concerns that influence the provision of medically futile care?

Based on the above question, it can be noted that courts has been able to maintain the principle of patient autonomy based on the historical paternalistic standards. Additionally, the state’s desire to preserve lives of patients and the court’s role to represent those state interest are likely to limit clinician’s decisions to terminate the end-of-life treatment. There has been increased cases of high level of moral distress when nurses deem that the care being provided is futile. There has been a controversial opinion regarding legal stance on whether clinicians should follow the patient’s family guidelines to continue with life support even though the clinicians believe it’s the best interesting of the patient.

A research done by Swetz et al (2014) provided a cognitive details about controversy regarding medical futility by providing legal concept factors that encourage and discourage provision of futile care. The study a also showed that the patient’s request for treatment can be considered inappropriate if the decision of the court to support that decision is perceived to undermine the medical professional and its related ethics.

The source that I found least credible was that of Lantos (2017). This is because the study provides the controversy in medical futility in the basis of patient’s wish without considering the medical profession guidelines and the legality of adopting medical futility.


Lantos, J. (2017). Intractable disagreements about futility. Perspectives in biology and medicine60(3), 390-399.

Swetz, K. M., Burkle, C. M., Berge, K. H., & Lanier, W. L. (2014, July). Ten common questions (and their answers) on medical futility. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 89, No. 7, pp. 943-959). Elsevier.

Discussion: Evaluating Nursing Accuracy

Based on the video, the best criteria I could use to evaluate medical intervention and surgery accuracy is using the treatment risk score. This risk score assigns numerical value to showcase the risk level associated with the medical procedure which range from 1 (very low risk) to 5 (very high risk). These categories are used to identify operations which shows increased potential for health constraints or other intraoperative and postoperative risks. The movie I analyzed (Nurses S3E15 Fly the Friendly Skies) does not meet my criteria as it doesn’t showcase how the medical treatment such as surgery can be apprauised in a balanced scorecard. As argued by Stachon et al (2008) the importance of medical risk score in nursing is to assess the accuracy of the hospital protocol and medical intervention. This helps the nurses to understand their working appraisal and also motivate them to deliver quality medical services and improve patient’s health outcome. Since the video does not offer this medical in the medical appraisal, it does not meet this criteria.

Regarding the selection of the future career in the healthcare field, the most common useful way to evaluate skills is performance appraisal. The performance appraisal helps to provide feedback regarding individual skills and their performance. It also serves as the basis for changing behavior towards more effective working habits (Homauni, Mosadeghrad & Jaafaripooyan, 2021). To assess the effectiveness of the future career, performance appraisal is important as it helps to understand different deliverables surrounding any given work. In the healthcare field, evaluating my skills using performance appraisal will be helpful ensure that I provide quality care to the patients. This will also help me to determine if I am able to meet patient’s expectations or I can do better to improve my performance.


Homauni, A., Mosadeghrad, A. M., & Jaafaripooyan, E. (2021). The effectiveness of employee performance appraisal system in health sector: Evidence from Iranian organizations. Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management16(4), 36-44.

Stachon, A., Segbers, E., Hering, S., Kempf, R., Holland-Letz, T., & Krieg, M. (2008). A laboratory-based risk score for medical intensive care patients. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine46(6), 855-862.