PhD in Nursing-Walden University
NURS 8250: Advanced Theoretical and Scientific Perspectives in Nursing
Dr. Susan Fowler, PhD
October 4, 2020
Introduction Comment by Sue Fowler: I realize that according to APA 7 – introduction not needed
Motivation is attributed willingness or desire to attain or achieve something though goal-directed behavior. According to the dictionary, it is the reason or reasons for acting or behaving. In simple terms, motivation encompasses processes that consider a person’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward meeting a goal or objective. The three vital aspects of a person’s willingness are intensity, direction, and persistence. With the intensity aspect, it implies the level at which an employee works to attain the goal. On the other hand, it directly benefits the organization as persistence determines how long a worker maintains his efforts or commitments. Under the context of Maslow’s Pyramid, motivation gets triggered by meeting needs such as physiological needs (sex, hunger, and thirst), a person’s safety, social (friendship, acceptance, and affection), esteem (self-respect and autonomy), and self-actualization (self-fulfillment).
Synopsis of Analysis
The research paper explains and presents the concept analysis of motivation.
Background: The current healthcare system is dynamic and requires accurate adjustment to ensure positive general organizational performance. Challenges of attending to the aging population, high demand for care services, patients with severe diseases such as cancer, and limited resources to solve future care issues demoralize healthcare providers’ efforts. With increasing demands for healthcare services, nurse leaders and nurse executives are forced to set specific goals that their team members should work to achieve them. Without motivation, it becomes challenging to attain such goals; thus, the organization’s performance decreases. Primarily, motivation is an internal process that triggers and makes a person move toward improving the quality of services provided.
A literature search will be critical in exploring the motivation concept. Sources such as electronic literature indexes, textbooks, Internet search engines, and scholarly research articles can provide evidence-based information concerning motivation. Mostly, literature not older than five years will give more evident findings to study motivation.
Eight concept-analysis steps of Walker and Avant (2019) to carry out a motivation analysis related to work engagement in healthcare.
Findings from Review of The Literature Comment by Sue Fowler: Please look at the sample paper I postedYou need to look at motivation across some disciplines – you have the human work place focusing on health care (nurses)
In Ethiopia, motivation is attached to job satisfaction among healthcare providers in public hospitals. In research by Ayalew et al. (2019), the findings show that resources’ availability determines the level of job motivation. Poor working conditions and limited resources demoralize nurses, thus reducing the level of their job satisfaction. However, this issue of decreased motivation is prevalent in developing countries and continues to negatively impact the quality of care. Among female nurses, job satisfaction is higher compare to their male counterparts. Female nurses attribute their motivation at the workplace with recognition, remuneration (equitable salary and fringe benefit), work experience, career development opportunities, and job features. Comment by Sue Fowler: I see satisfaction as a consequence of motivationI see resources as an antecedent for motivation
Furthermore, adequate competent clinical staff motivates nurses since incidences of burnout are zero since the tasks assigned to every nurse are manageable within the official eight working hours. Across the world, there is a problem of critical shortage of nurses. Nurse are migrating to other countries looking for better pay and working conditions, career development, and personal safety (Freeman et al., Baumann, Blythe, Fisher, & Akhtar‐Danesh, 2012). The reason behind shortage and migration is due to lack of motivation, so the hospitals cannot retain nurses for long time. According to Riahi (2011), role stress is a major problem among physicians and has led to increased distress contributing to burnout in the nursing profession. It is crucial to analyze role stress concept and its impact on nurses’ motivation. Comment by Sue Fowler: This would be a resource – an antecedent Comment by Sue Fowler: Stress is just a factor that may influence motivation but it is not an antecedent, defining attribute, or consequence
A 2016-2025 strategic plan launched by the Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia aimed to enhance the country’s commitments for developing, recruiting, deploying, and motiving healthcare workers. Ayalew et al.,, Kibwana, Shawula, Misganaw, Abosse, Van Roosmalen, & Mariam, 2019). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors mainly drive overall job satisfaction. For instance, the researchers found that intrinsic motivation elements such as recognition for good performance, features of the job itself, and personal career development enhance job satisfaction and motivation. On the other hand, polices and administration, working conditions, salary, promotions, supervisions, and job security are extrinsic motivational factors of job satisfaction. Comment by Sue Fowler: You already noted that satisfaction is a consequence of motivationWhat I read here is that SELF is a defining attribute – intrinsic and the ENVIRONMENT is a defining attribute – extrinsic (things outside of self, in the environment)
In Iran, the concept of motivation among nurses is anchored based on encouragement. According to Esfahani & Afshin (2019), work engagement makes nurses feel motivated to give empathetic and safe healthcare services in a complex healthcare setting. Among Iranian healthcare centers, nursing work motivation among nurses and physicians is between medium to high. A s a result, hospital management, through their nurse managers and policymakers, need to focus on serious attraction to improve the job motivation that will make nurses achieve greater performance. Comment by Sue Fowler: Encouragement comes from others – others are part of the environment mentioned above in my comment
The motivation of nurses and performance outcomes are directly related. The level of motivation affects satisfaction, retention, organizational performance, commitment, wellbeing, and engagement. In the perspective of wellbeing, nurses gain a feeling of happiness, also called an advanced psychological experience of individuals. In research conducted by Baljoon, Banjar, and& Banakhar (2018), motivation is the product of interactions between people, their work setting, the match between these interactions, and the social context. Extrinsically motivated nurses find their work interesting, fun and challenging (Baljoon et al., 2018). The extent to which nurses are happy relies on how well they get motivated and the availability of personal sources of happiness. Comment by Sue Fowler: Once again the environment that involves others may be a defining attribute OR an antecedent??? Comment by Sue Fowler: This is about self again – a defining attribute
The connection between motivation and burnout is crucial when determining the level of emotional, physical, and mental tiredness resulting from long-term engagement in the work environment that appears to be emotionally demanding. In a Baljoon et al., (2018) study, motivation relates to work holism, work engagement, and burnout. Burned-out nurses do not view their work activities as satisfying and enjoyable. The findings showed that the encouragement of autonomous motivation contributes to increased job engagement and a decline in work holism and burnout. In Canada, among healthcare providers, burnout negatively impacts commitment and their work performance. Comment by Sue Fowler: Satisfaction if one consequence which is positive (increased motivation results in increase satisfaction); but, decreased motivation can lead to decreased satisfaction (which can result in burnout)
Work motivation is essential for healthcare specialists’ performance. It has been established that it influences work performance among nurses. For instance, in quantitative research that examined the link between motivation and performance among healthcare providers employed at European Gaza Hospital, the most motivated care workers attain excellent performance outcomes compared to low-motivated care providers (Baljoon et al., 2018). This research findings raise the need for ensuring adequate training programs and an equitable working schedule to improve motivation and improve job performance. Further, the research findings indicated that highly-motivated nurses smile and initiate friendly discussions with patients and residents. Comment by Sue Fowler: OK, another consequence is PERFORMANCE (which can be positive or negative based on increased or decreased motivation)
Education – Students
Lifestyle – Weight Loss
Antecedents, Attributes, and Consequences
Antecedents of motivation are resources (citations from above).
Defining attributes of motivation are internal self (citations from above) and the external environment, which includes other people (citations from above).
Consequences of motivation are satisfaction (citations from above) and performance (citations from above). Increased motivation can result in increased satisfaction and performance. Conversely, decreased motivation can lead to decreased satisfaction and performance.
Action comes before a motivation meaning it is a precursor to motivation. Motivation antecedents are intrinsic and extrinsic. Like personal attributes, these two categories involve clinical experiments that relate to educational-creativity setting or work environment context. When a person is intrinsically motivated, he engages in an activity solely because he enjoys it and gets personally satisfied with it. Similarly, when he gets extrinsically motivated, he does something to receive or gain an external reward (Bakay & Huang, 2010). The self-determination level and capability, and features of the work itself are critical elements (concepts) of extrinsic motivation. In general, the main attribute of intrinsic motivation loves what you do. On the other hand, the work performance results and nature of the work allude to extrinsic motivation. However, the negative relationship existing between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation undermines intrinsic motivation. Within the creativity context, the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic enhances the overall performance. Comment by Sue Fowler: I see nothing above about action – that it is an antecedentHow would it be that you have to ACT before you can become motivated? Isn’t action, such as performance, the consequence??I see RESOURCES as an antecedentIn this paragraph you do not call out the antecedents, defining attributes, and consequences – see my additions/suggestions Comment by Sue Fowler: I don’t think soIntrinsic and extrinsic are part of the defining attributes
A Model Case
According to Maslow’s five-model of the hierarchy of needs, motivation is a procedural process containing basic needs that must be met before proceeding to the next level of motivation. A nurse should first meet biological and physiological needs such as food, sleep, sex, shelter, and warmth before meeting safety needs. In the second stage of motivation and satisfaction, a nurse must have protection, stability, and security (Montag, Sindermann, Lester, & Davis, 2020). The third step of the model being belongingness and affection needs, requires a nurse to have a healthy relationship and teamwork. The fourth last need is esteem. A nurse has already built his image, status and achieved better results. The last need is self-actualization that involves nurses’ need to seek career advancement opportunities.
Motivation itself can be measured. For example, student motivation can be measured with a Student Motivation Scale, a quantitative measure. The outcomes of lack of motivation can also be measured and include decreased performance, higher employee turnover, engagement’s low levels, poor communication, inability to overcome adversity, and lack of apathy for the work. As a result, these referents proliferate and contribute to toxic workplace environment. Unmotivated nurses do not seem to care if they have a job or not. Also, they are unlikely to accept challenges and changes and cannot stick with the problem to allow for finding a long-term solution. Comment by Sue Fowler: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-psychologists-and-counsellors-in-schools/article/student-motivation-scale-a-tool-for-measuring-and-enhancing-motivation/DC98F15FFE5C231DC688B4B584D8990E Comment by Sue Fowler: This is opinion and does not belong here unless you have support for this comment
Motivation in the workplace will lead to increased productivity due to a high level of performance among employees. As a result, the implication of hospitals’ motivation is finding what triggers motivation, especially among frontline workers such as nurses. Instead of focusing on monetary motivation, hospitals can improve working conditions, hire enough staff, and provide adequate work resources.
Influence of Motivation Concept Analysis
From the above concept analysis, I have realized that the best motivation is not only based on giving attractive compensation packages but using non-monetary rewards. Previously, I perceived motivation to be an aspect that is not much important in determining workers’ and organizations’ performance in general. Now, based on the finding, I can justify that motivation is the backbone of workforce performance and increased productivity. I will use the findings to frame comprehensive research questions to research on broad motivation area of interest.
Ayalew, F., Kibwana, S., Shawula, S., Misganaw, E., Abosse, Z., Van Roosmalen, J., … & Mariam, D. W. (2019). Understanding job satisfaction and motivation among nurses in public health facilities of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC nursing, 18(1), 46.
Bakay, A., & Huang, J. (2010). A conceptual model of motivational antecedents of job outcomes and how organizational culture moderates. Available at SSRN 1722048.
Baljoon, R. A., Banjar, H. E., & Banakhar, M. A. (2018). Nurses’ work motivation and the factors affecting it: a scoping review. International Journal of Nursing & Clinical Practices, 2018.
Esfahani, P., & Afshin, M. (2019). Job Motivation among Iranian Nurses; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study. Health Research Journal, 4(1), 30-37.
Fierz, K., Nicca, D., & Spirig, R. (2013). Perceived HIV symptom manageability: synthesis of a new use for a known concept. Journal of advanced nursing, 69(1), 229-241.
Freeman, M., Baumann, A., Blythe, J., Fisher, A., & Akhtar‐Danesh, N. (2012). Migration: a concept analysis from a nursing perspective. Journal of advanced nursing, 68(5), 1176-1186.
Montag, C., Sindermann, C., Lester, D., & Davis, K. L. (2020). Linking individual differences in satisfaction with each of Maslow’s needs to the Big Five personality traits and Panksepp’s primary emotional systems. Heliyon, 6(7), e04325.
Riahi, S. (2011). Role stress amongst nurses at the workplace: concept analysis. Journal of nursing management, 19(6), 721-731.