Discussion Board

Classmate 1: Chapter 13,14,15

Chapter 13

Compare and Contrast Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck’s approaches to Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

Both Ellis and Beck believe that people can adopt reason, and both considered a person’s underlying assumptions as the focus for interventions.

Ellis confronted patients and disputed their beliefs in the order to convince them in that their philosophies were unrealistic.

Beck’s approach is a cooperative relationship with patients to identify and solve problem, overcoming their difficulties by altering thinking, behaviors. Or emotional responses.

Beck Feels that children are born with the disposition to survive and the desire to procreate which occurs later in life. Beck goes on to explain that feeling of pleasure and pain guides throughout life. Peoples perceive, interpret, and learn from their own experiences. Beck acknowledges that children have different temperaments that pushes them in diverse directions and therefore are more likely to perceive the same event differently.

Discuss the use of CBT with children who are depressed

CBR models for depression often consist of four levels.

1. Behavioral procedures- such as contingent reinforcement, shaping prompting and modeling, to increase social interactions.

2. CBT interventions- Which include pairing successful task completion with positive self-statements and reinforcement of those self-statements.

3. Cognitive intervention- Which are used with social skills training, role-playing and self-management

4. Self-control- procedures such as self-evaluation and self-reinforcement.

The counselor finds sources of distress and dysfunction and helps the child clarify goals. In cases of serves depression or anxiety the therapist will be very directive. The practitioner serves as a guide to help the client understand how beliefs and attitudes interact with emotions and behavior. The counselor is also catalyst promoting corrective experiences leading to cognitive change and building skills.

List the problem-solving steps of CBT and give examples of the steps.

• Build an agenda that has meaning for the client- Counselor and client identify the problem and interpretation.

• Ascertain and measure the intensity of the person’s mood- Counselor ask the client “how are you feeling” can use the scale 1-10

• Identify and review presenting problems- Confirming evidence of the problem

• Ask about the client’s expectation for counseling- What does the client want to achieve

• Teach the person about cognitive therapy and the client’s role in it

• Give information about the person’s difficulties and diagnosis

• Establish goals – Client and counselor set goals

• Recommend homework- Counselor gives technics that the client can achieve

• Summarize- Check in with the client what is working and not working.

• Obtain the client’s feedback (Beck, 2011, p. 60).

All of the following sessions have a similar format to the one above. Each session embodies a collaborative problem-solving focus with both the counselor and client actively involved with the use of collaborative empiricism.

Henderson, Donna A.; Thompson, Charles L.. Counseling Children (p. 412). Cengage Learning. Kindle Edition.

Chapter 14

List and describe different types of strokes according to Transactional Analysis

According to the textbook a stroke is any act implying recognition of another person’s presence.

Positive- such as cuddling with a child, compliments, handshakes

Negative- such as spanking a child, hatred, disagreements

Conditional- I like you when your nice

Unconditional- I like you

Give examples of different types of ego states in Transactional Analysis

TA belief that the human personality has three separate ego states. Parent, Adult and child

Stage 1 Occurs from birth to age 1- The child ego state evolves with early experiences, emotions, intuition, inquisitiveness. Capacity of joy

Stage 2 from age 1-3 contains the development of the adult and parent ego states that continues to advance until age 6

Stage 3 from ages 3 to 6 continues the evolution of the ego states with messages from other and experiences shaping them.

State 4 happens at age 6 the three major ego states have developed but will continue to grow

Stage 5 occurs at age 6-12 Education and interpersonal experiences contribute to changes in the ego state.

Stage 6 occurs at age 13-16 in the child’s ego develops rapidly and may be revealed in rebellion and conflict.

Stage 7 Late adolescence involves the time the adult ego state may be able to provide balance between the three ego states. Promoting a person’ maturity and need fulfillment.

Stage 8 Adulthood is the time when hopefully people have psychological maturity

Chapter 15

Explain enmeshment disengaged detiangulation and first order second order change

First-order change occurs when the symptom is temporarily removed, only to reappear later because the family system has not been changed

Second-order change occurs when symptom and system are repaired and the need for the symptom does not reappear.

Enmeshment – too may involved in each other lives

Disengaged- too many detachment from each other

De-triangulation – refers to the practice of two family member bringing a third family member into conflictual situation. Another example of triangulation is involvement of a person outside the marital dyad such as a lover to fulfill unmet needs in the marriage

Choose two models of family therapy and compare and contrast those models

Structural family therapy assumes that the individual should be treated within the context of the family system. The overall goal of structural family therapists is to alter the family structure to empower the family to move toward functional ways of conducting or transacting family business and communications. Functional families are characterized by each member’s success in finding the healthy balance between belonging to a family and maintaining a separate identity. One way to find the balance between family and individual identity is to define and clarify the boundaries that exist between the subsystems.

strategic family therapy. This type of family therapy is based on the assumption that family member behavior is ongoing and repetitive and can be understood only in the family context. Strategic refers to the development of a specific strategy, planned in advance by the therapist, to resolve the presenting problem as quickly and efficiently as possible. Paradoxical interventions are often used to harness the strong resistance clients have to change and to taking directives. Clients may be asked to intensify the problem as one way of using paradox. Another way is for the therapists to take a “one-down” position, encouraging the client not to do too much too soon. Counselors must differentiate between first-order and second-order changes. First-order change occurs when the symptom is temporarily removed, only to reappear later because the family system has not been changed. Second-order change occurs when symptom and system are repaired and the need for the symptom does not reappear.

Discuss Virginia Satir approach to family therapy

Virginia Satir considered herself a detective who helps children figure out their parents. She thought 90% of what happens in family is hidden. The family’s needs, motives, and communication patterns are included in this %90. Satir believes that three key system are increase self-esteem of all family member, help family member better understand their encounter and use experiential learning to improve interactions.

The counselor, in Satir’s model, is a facilitator, resource, observer, detective, and model of communication, warmth, and empathy. The goals of therapy are to help family members better understand themselves and increase their ability to communicate congruently, to build respect for each family member, and to view differences as opportunities to grow (Fall et al., 2010).

In summary, Satir regarded mature people as (1) being in touch with their feelings, (2) communicating clearly and effectively, and (3) accepting differences in others as a chance to learn.

Henderson, Donna A.; Thompson, Charles L.. Counseling Children (p. 490). Cengage Learning. Kindle Edition.

Henderson, Donna A.; Thompson, Charles L.. Counseling Children (p. 489). Cengage Learning. Kindle Edition.