Essay

Types of Memory

Module 11

Psychology 1: General Psychology

J. Marie Hicks, Ph.D. Adjunct Psychology Instructor marie.hicks@rccd.edu

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INTRODUCTION

J. Marie Hicks, M.A. Doctoral Candidate UCR

marie.hicks@rccd.edu

Office hours available by arranged appointment

Access to Blackboard is through Open Campus

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Definitions

Memory

Encoding

Storing

Retrieving

INTRODUCTION

Definitions

Memory

ability to retain information over time through three processes: encoding, storing, and retrieving

not copies but representations of the world that vary in accuracy and are subject to error and bias

Encoding

refers to making mental representations of information so that it can be placed into memory

Storing

process of placing encoded information into relatively permanent mental storage for later recall

Retrieving

process of getting or recalling information that has been placed into short- or long-term storage

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Sensory memory

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

3 TYPES OF MEMORY

Memory processes

Sensory memory

Initial process that receives and holds environmental information in its raw form for a brief period of time, from an instant to several seconds

don’t pay attention, information is forgotten

pay attention, information is automatically transferred into short-term memory

Short-term memory

Also called working memory; refers to another process that can hold only a limited amount of information an average of seven items, from 2 to 30 seconds

don’t pay attention, information isn’t encoded and is forgotten

Long-term memory

Process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time

encoded information will remain on a relatively permanent basis

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Iconic memory

Icon means image

Echoic memory

Echo infers sound

Functions of sensory memory

SENSORY MEMORY: RECORDING

Iconic memory

Form of sensory memory that automatically holds visual information for about a quarter of a second or more; as soon as you shift your attention, the information disappears

Icon means image

Echoic memory

Form of sensory memory that holds auditory information for 1 to 2 seconds

Holds speech sounds long enough to know that sequences of certain sounds form words

Functions of sensory memory

Prevents being overwhelmed

Gives decision time

Provides stability, playback, and recognition

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Short-term, or working, memory – usually 7, + or – 2

Major Feature

Limited duration

(Maintenance rehearsal helps)

Interference (causes losses)

Chunking (increases amount)

Functions of short-tem memory

Attending

Rehearsing

Storing

SHORT-TERM MEMORY: WORKING

Short-term, or working, memory

Process of holding a limited amount of information (an average of seven items) for a limited period of time (2 to 30 seconds)

Short duration can be lengthened by repeating or rehearsing the information

Two features

Limited duration

Maintenance rehearsal

practice of intentionally repeating information so that it remains in short-term memory longer

Interference

Results when new information enters short-term memory and overwrites or pushes out information that’s already there

Chunking

Combining separate items of information into a larger unit, or chunk, and then remembering these chunks rather than individual items

Functions of short-tem memory

Attending

selectively attend to relevant information and disregard everything else

Rehearsing

allows you to hold information for a short period of time until you decide what to do with it

Storing

helps store or encode information in long-term memory

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SHORT-TERM MEMORY

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Putting information into long-term memory

Encoding

Long-term memory

Retrieving

LONG-TERM MEMORY: STORING

Putting information into long-term memory

Encoding

transferring information from short- to long-term memory by paying attention to it, repeating it, or forming new associations

Long-term memory

process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time

Retrieving

process of selecting information from long-term memory and transferring it to short-term memory

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Separate memory systems

Primacy versus recency

Primacy effect – first items on the list (first learned)

Recency effect – last items on the list (last learned)

Primary-recency effect

Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative

Declarative memory

Semantic memory

Episodic memory

Procedural or nondeclarative memory

LONG-TERM MEMORY: STORING

Separate memory systems

Primacy versus recency

Primacy effect

better recall or retention of information presented at the beginning of a task

Recency effect

better recall or retention of information presented at the end of a task

Primary-recency effect

better recall of information presented at the beginning and end of a task

Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative

Declarative memory

involves memories for facts or events, such as scenes, stories, words, conversations, faces, or daily events

aware of and can recall or retrieve these kinds of memories

Semantic memory

type of declarative memory that involves knowledge of facts, concepts, words, definitions, and language rules

Episodic memory

type of declarative memory that involves knowledge of specific events, personal experiences (episodes), or activities, such as naming or describing favorite restaurants, movies, songs, habits, or hobbies

Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative

Procedural or nondeclarative memory

involves memories for motor skills (playing tennis), some cognitive skills (learning to read), and emotional behaviors learned through classical conditioning

can’t recall or retrieve procedural memories

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Encoding

Two kinds of encoding:

Automatic encoding

Effortful encoding

Rehearsing and encoding

Maintenance rehearsal

Elaborative rehearsal

Levels of processing

ENCODING: TRANSFERRING

Encoding

Acquiring information or storing it in memory by changing it into neural or memory codes

Two kinds of encoding

Automatic encoding

transfer of information from short- to long-term memory without effort or awareness (personal events, interesting facts, skills/habits)

Effortful encoding

transfer of information from short- to long-term memory by working hard to rehearse the information or by making associations

Rehearsing and encoding

Maintenance rehearsal

simply repeating or rehearsing information rather than forming any new associations

works better for short-term memory

Elaborative rehearsal

using effort to actively make meaningful associations between new information that you wish to remember and old or familiar information already stored in long-term memory

Levels of processing

Theory says that remembering depends on how information is encoded

Information encoded at a shallow level results in poor recall

Deeper and deepest processing: encode by making new association

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Definition of repressed memory

Implanting false memories

Pseudomemory

Hypnosis & Repressed Memory

To stipulate that repressed memory

is possible…

Repression – Repressed Memory

Retrieval – Recovered Memory

PTSD

How MEMORY functions: repressed memory / ptsd

Definition of repressed memory

Process by which the mind pushes a memory of some threatening or traumatic event deep into the unconscious mind

Implanting false memories

Studies show that a false suggestion can grow into a vivid, detailed, and believable personal memory

Pseudomemory

A memory for an event that never occurred and that may be possible to create by methods similar to those used to recover repressed memories

Repressed memory of abuse

It is important to note that we are addressing a specific psychological theory and its implications

Abuse is bad. It can have severe consequences in people’s lives.

Having said that, the recovered memory movement also devastated people’s lives.

As responsible citizens, we should make every effort to be informed about all such issues (e.g. child abuse, recovered memory movement) and make responsible decisions when opportunities are afforded to us.

Hypnosis and Repressed Memory

Hypnosis creates a highly suggestible state.  Hypnosis poses a risk of creating false memories — usually as a result of unintended suggestions by the therapist. It is not considered a dependable tool as it is risky because it is easy to lead and encourage the patient by suggestive or leading questions.

To Stipulate that Repressed memory is possible…

Repressed Memory

A memory of an event that is so bad, that it is not consciously accessible

Recovered Memory

A repressed memory that has once again become consciously accessible

PTSD

Flashbacks

reliving the trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating

Bad dreams

Nightmares reliving the trauma

Frightening thoughts

“Daymares” or reoccurring thoughts related to the trauma

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How MEMORY functions: implanted memory

Hot Air Balloon Ride Wade, Garry, Read, & Lindsay (2002)

Ss shown four photographs

3 real childhood photos / 1 ‘doctored’ childhood photo (hot air balloon)

Ss viewed photos 3 times over 2 weeks

50% remembered something about the balloon ride that never happened

Their reports were often rich and detailed.

Definition of repressed memory

Process by which the mind pushes a memory of some threatening or traumatic event deep into the unconscious mind

Implanting false memories

Studies show that a false suggestion can grow into a vivid, detailed, and believable personal memory

Pseudomemory

A memory for an event that never occurred and that may be possible to create by methods similar to those used to recover repressed memories

Repressed memory of abuse

It is important to note that we are addressing a specific psychological theory and its implications

Abuse is bad. It can have severe consequences in people’s lives.

Having said that, the recovered memory movement also devastated people’s lives.

As responsible citizens, we should make every effort to be informed about all such issues (e.g. child abuse, recovered memory movement) and make responsible decisions when opportunities are afforded to us.

Hypnosis and Repressed Memory

Hypnosis creates a highly suggestible state.  Hypnosis poses a risk of creating false memories — usually as a result of unintended suggestions by the therapist. It is not considered a dependable tool as it is risky because it is easy to lead and encourage the patient by suggestive or leading questions.

To Stipulate that Repressed memory is possible…

Repressed Memory

A memory of an event that is so bad, that it is not consciously accessible

Recovered Memory

A repressed memory that has once again become consciously accessible

PTSD

Flashbacks

reliving the trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating

Bad dreams

Nightmares reliving the trauma

Frightening thoughts

“Daymares” or reoccurring thoughts related to the trauma

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How MEMORY functions: implanted memory

Loftus & Pickrell (1995)

Lost in a mall

Porter, Yuille, & Lehman (1999)

dog attacks and other injuries and accidents.

Hyman, Husband, & Billings (1994)

beestings, punch bowls, & fire alarms

Clark & Loftus (1996)

space alien abduction memories

(don’t laugh – as many as 3 million people believe they have been abducted by space aliens).

Definition of repressed memory

Process by which the mind pushes a memory of some threatening or traumatic event deep into the unconscious mind

Implanting false memories

Studies show that a false suggestion can grow into a vivid, detailed, and believable personal memory

Pseudomemory

A memory for an event that never occurred and that may be possible to create by methods similar to those used to recover repressed memories

Repressed memory of abuse

It is important to note that we are addressing a specific psychological theory and its implications

Abuse is bad. It can have severe consequences in people’s lives.

Having said that, the recovered memory movement also devastated people’s lives.

As responsible citizens, we should make every effort to be informed about all such issues (e.g. child abuse, recovered memory movement) and make responsible decisions when opportunities are afforded to us.

Hypnosis and Repressed Memory

Hypnosis creates a highly suggestible state.  Hypnosis poses a risk of creating false memories — usually as a result of unintended suggestions by the therapist. It is not considered a dependable tool as it is risky because it is easy to lead and encourage the patient by suggestive or leading questions.

To Stipulate that Repressed memory is possible…

Repressed Memory

A memory of an event that is so bad, that it is not consciously accessible

Recovered Memory

A repressed memory that has once again become consciously accessible

PTSD

Flashbacks

reliving the trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating

Bad dreams

Nightmares reliving the trauma

Frightening thoughts

“Daymares” or reoccurring thoughts related to the trauma

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Photographic memory

Eidetic imagery

Flashbulb memories

unusual MEMORY: special cases

Photographic memory

Occurs in adults; ability to form sharp, detailed visual images after examining a picture or page for a short period of time and to recall the entire image at a later date

Eidetic imagery

Form of photographic memory that occurs in children; the ability to examine a picture or page for 10 to 30 seconds and then for several minutes hold in one’s mind a detailed visual image of the material

Flashbulb memories

Vivid recollections, usually in great detail, of dramatic or emotionally charged incidents that are of interest to the person

Encoded effortlessly and may last for long periods of time

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