An example of a nonexperimental research design is a study by Mäkitie et al (2020), a descriptive study comparing differences in protocols of treatment for oral tongue cancer. Their study discusses differences in treatment protocols, comparisons were between 2 groups of patients each from Finland and Sweden, with no prior history of neck or head cancers. Patients from Finland were noted to have more improved outcomes than the Sweden group, improved survival rates and downstaging of cancer; the Finland patients also had higher percentages with reconstructive surgeries than the Swedish patients. This study showed a strong correlation with improved patient outcomes linked to certain treatment protocols, recommending further evaluation of treatment protocols in relation to quality of life and survival rates. This study is not highly controlled and is not considered an experimental study.
An example of an experimental research design would be a blinded study testing a drug for decreasing alcohol craving in persons with at risk drinking as evidenced by positive scores on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise (AUDIT-C). Participants and staff are blinded to participants who are placed into experimental or control group. AUDIT C scores are obtained at beginning and end of study, diary cards are used for tracking alcoholic beverages throughout the study, and craving questionnaires are given at the beginning and end of study. Measurements for the screening tools are all recorded, and data is analyzed to see if there are significant changes in variables, independent variable, the drug, and screeners for alcohol use and craving questionnaires are the dependent variables.
Different levels of control are applied to experimental and nonexperimental studies. According to GCU (2018), nonexperimental studies are far less controlled than experimental studies, they apply a prediction regarding relationship between the variables, this is how they apply their hypothesis. Descriptive designs many times are used as a basis for future research. Experimental studies have the highest control design, a testable design with numerical outcomes for quantitative studies, these studies have a solid and strong hypothesis.
Provide examples of experimental and nonexperimental research design. Contrast the levels of control applied to each.
Using 200-300 APA format with at least two references to support this discussion.