Candidates must answer any TWO (2) questions. All questions are equally weighted.
1. In ‘Managing 21st Century Political Risk’ (HBR, 2018), Rice and Zegart argue that for companies, 21st century political risk is essentially the probability that a political action will significantly affect their business—whether positively or negatively. Assess political risk in explaining how to tackle it in emerging markets.
2. In ‘New business models in emerging markets’ (HBR, 2011), Eyring et al argue that ‘targeting the middle market can be lucrative’. Assess their new business models and the management challenges confronted by MNCs in emerging markets.
3. In ‘The role of the EU in shaping FDI flows to East Central Europe (ECE)’ (Journal of Common Market Studies, 2014), Medve-Balint argues that the EU has actively shaped foreign capital flows to the region. Assess the locational advantages of ECE in explaining the dynamic interaction of EU’s approach to FDI and ECE’s response to it.
4. In ‘The rise of middle kingdoms: emerging economies in global trade’ (Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2012), Hanson argues that specialization serves as a vehicle for middle income nations to transform the global economy. Assess specialization in relation to comparative advantage and the new trade theory/strategic trade policy.