Functional Grammar

 

PAPER CODE NO. ENGL 6471

            EXAMINER:           

            DEPARTMENT:      SCHOOLOF ENGLISH                                                                  

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCHOOL OF ENGLISH

Functional Grammar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

Submission deadline: Monday 19 April, 2p.m, on CANVAS.

 

 

Candidates are reminded that they should not duplicate material used in any other examination or assessed work.

 

 

 

 

FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR

 

Answer BOTH questions below. Question 1 is worth 25% of the total result; question 2 is worth 75%.

 

Question One (worth 25%)

The following texts (Extract 1) are adapted from an online column in which readers send in questions about personal problems, and their questions are answered by an agony aunt.

  • Analyse the Letter in terms of the experiential metafunction (i.e. processes, participants and circumstances).
  • Analyse the Response in terms of the interpersonal metafunction (i.e. mood, speech function, Subject + Finite, modality).

Present your analyses in the way that we have done them in class (the analyses provided for Question 2 can serve as a guide in how to do this). Please do not provide a written discussion of the analyses or include any references for Question One.

 

EXTRACT 1

[Letter]

I’m a teenager and life is keeping me awake at night. I’m taking exams next year. I’m all set for good grades. But there’s so much work to do and too little time to get it done. I’m really stressed and nothing anyone says seems to make any difference.

Also, I’m worried about my mum. She was victim of a credit-card fraud recently. But dad’s working abroad and he can’t change his job, and she didn’t want to worry him about it, so she coped on her own and told me not to tell him.

And my little brother is giving me grief. He’s 13 and moody and awkward and plays on my computer without asking me. I’m not saying my life is a living hell but everything’s got too much. I lie awake at night and cry because I don’t want life to be like this, but I don’t know how to change it.

 

[Response]

I really do feel for you. It may not be hell on earth but I do understand how much stress there is going on in your house and how low you’re feeling right now. There’s nothing wrong with having a cry when you’re alone in your bed, but don’t feel you have to cope on your own.

I think the important thing is not to feel that it’s all down to you. Don’t take everyone’s problems onto your shoulders and feel that you have to carry them through. If you can, why don’t you take time off? Go for a swim or hang out with friends and watch a film. Just take it a day at a time. Talking things through with someone who’s safely outside the situation can also help you feel better and more in control.

 

EXTRACT 1 – Transitivity analysis

 

1           I                    am                                                         a teenager

              Token           pro: relational, identifying                          value

and                life                is keeping                             me                     awake at night.

                 Attributer          Pr: mental, cognition Carrier           attribute

 

2           I                     am taking               exams                                          next year.

Actor                  process              goals             

             

3           I                     am all set                                          for good grades.

              Token           pro: relational, identifying                         goals

 

4           But there            is                                                    so much             work to do

                                         Pro: relational, identifying         existent              circumstance

                                         and                                                too little time     to get it done.

Pro: relational, identifying         existent              circumstance

5           I                          am really stressed               and.

              Senser               Pr: mental, cognition                  Phenomenon

 

nothing anyone says      seems to make                            any difference

 

Senser                              Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

 

6           Also,        I                       am worried                            about my mum.

              Cir        Senser                Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

 

3           She                     was                                                victim   of a credit-card fraud recently.

Token           pro: relational, identifying                      value

 

4           But dad              is working                                    abroad

              Actor                  Pr: mental, cognition                           Cir: location

and he                can’t change                                 his job,

Actor                  Pr: mental, cognition                           Cir: location

and        she                      didn’t want                            to worry him about it,

                            Senser                Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

 

so          she                      coped                                          on her own

                           Senser                Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

                           and       (she)                   told                            me                      not to tell him.

sayer                   process               receiver               verbiage

 

6           And my little brother                   is giving                me                      grief.

                           Attributor                        Pr: mental, cognition           carrier                phenomenon

 

7           He                      is                                                   13         and        moody and               awkward

              Token           pro: relational, identifying                   value                     value                           value

 

8           I            am not saying

              sayer     process             

my life                                           is a                     living hell

Pro: relational, identifying              existent              circumstance

but everything                              has got too much.

Pro: relational, identifying              existent              circumstance

             

9           I                          lie awake                         at night and                     cry

Actor                  Pr: material                    Cir                                   Pr: mental, cognition

 

10         because I                         don’t want                            life to be like this,

                           Senser                Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

 

 

 

 

 

EXTRACT 1 – Response – Interpersonal analysis:

 

  mood Speech Function Clause Subject Finite Modal expression
1 DEC Statement I really do feel for you. I do really
  DEC Statement It may not be hell on earth It may may
  DEC Statement but I do understand I do  
    how much stress there is going on in your house stress is  
    and how low you’re feeling right now. you are  
2 DEC Statement There’s nothing wrong with having a cry There should should
3   when you’re alone in your bed, You are  
4 IMP Command but don’t feel you have to cope on your own. You have have to
5 IMP Statement I think the important thing is not to feel that it’s all down to you. I Think  
  IMP Command Don’t take everyone’s problems onto your shoulders don’t  
  Command and feel that you have to carry them through. have  
  Command/Question If you can, You can  
  INT   why don’t you take time off? you don’t  
6 DEC Command Go for a swim or hang out with friends and watch a film. go  
  IMP Command Just take it a day at a time. take  
  IMP Command Talking things through with someone <…> can also help you feel better and more in control Talking things through with someone can  
    <who’s safely outside the situation >. Is  

 

Question Two (worth 75%)

 

The two extracts on the next page are about how language learners learn grammar. The first is from onestopenglish.com, an online website that provides fairly informal advice and discussion for EFL teachers. The other is an academic paper from Applied Linguistics.

 

Please write an assignment of 2-2,500 words (maximum) on these texts, following these guidelines:

 

  1. Start with a research background on functional grammar and its categories. This should take up no more than 500 words, referring to about three of the sources – Halliday, Thompson, Eggins etc. Your purpose here is to show that you understand the functional grammatical approach to language analysis, so aim to explain and illustrate the various metafunctions etc. largely in your own words, but using the occasional quotation/reference.

 

  1. Use the analyses provided in the appendices to discuss and compare how the writers carry out their communicative purposes (like we did in the practice exam, Session 9). Take into account (1) how the functions are related to the different grammatical choices that the writers choose to make and (2) how the functions can be related to the different contexts (i.e. who is talking to whom) in which the texts were produced.

 

  1. In this discussion, you only have to refer to 2 of the 3 metafunctions, but can refer to all 3 if you wish. This discussion should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words.

 

  1. Don’t write separate introduction, methods or conclusion sections.

 

In EXTRACT 2, Scott Thornbury gives advice to someone who has asked about how to teach grammar to business people whose English level is elementary.

 

EXTRACT 2

You’re in a very interesting situation, even an enviable one – although I can quite understand how it may seem frightening. Unlike most teachers, who have no choice in the matter, you are in the exhilarating position of being able to decide for yourself how to programme a course for beginners. Most teachers are trapped into having to march their poor students through the agonies of the “traditional grammar syllabus”. All the time they are wondering why their students seem incapable of putting two words together in any coherent way. Don’t be frightened! Enjoy your freedom – and let your students be your guide. Let’s look at the issues.

First of all, your students don’t need grammar, they need words – a lot of words and fast. It’s now widely accepted that language learning is powered, initially, by vocabulary: the steady accumulation of lexical items, including multi-word units (also called lexical phrases or chunks). Slowly the learner extracts patterns out of these words and chunks, and a kind of early grammar develops, just as with a child learning its first language. …

So, you are in an incredibly fortunate position. You can let the learners direct you. Find out what topics they are interested in. Provide them with lists of vocabulary about these topics and other everyday topics, and set up conversations, and then focus on the problems they are having by giving mini-lessons in the grammar they need. The grammar is neither inductive nor deductive: it is emergent.

And, even if you decide that this is too radical, and that you would rather work through a traditional grammar book – that is OK. But do an “emergent grammar” lesson from time to time – just for a change – and experience for yourself how exciting it is letting the learners lead the lesson.

 

 

EXTRACT 3 is from M. Sharwood Smith & J. Truscott 2006. ‘Stages or continua in Second Language Acquisition: A MOGUL solution,’ Applied Linguistics 26/2: 219–240. It deals with the issue of whether learners learn L2 grammar in clear stages or in a gradual process.

 

EXTRACT 3

Identifying and analysing stages of development seems to be an integral part of the way people study second language learning, but do language learners actually develop the L2 grammar through a series of discrete stages or is the reality more one of gradual change? Should evidence of variation and instability in learner behaviour be treated as noise in the data or short-term transitional phenomena of no theoretical interest?

The question is, of course, heavily theory-dependent. Ever since the start of second language acquisition (SLA) research in the early 1970s, the literature has certainly been full of references to ‘stages’. Typically, for those who make a distinction between knowledge and the ability to perform that knowledge, the growth of an L2 has always been seen as passing through series of discrete ‘knowledge states’: observable phenomena that obscure this idea of stages are dismissed as noise in the data. At the same time, the idea that development does not actually proceed in neatly definable stages, and with no backsliding, does surface in the literature, especially in longitudinal studies where the gradual and somewhat unruly nature of development is very evident (see, for example, Cancino et al. 1978). Theoretical preferences may equally bias the researcher in the other direction as well, away from stages: if a behaviourist or connectionist approach to acquisition is adopted, then, provided there is continuous exposure to the L2, there can only be gradual development as old connections are gradually strengthened and new connections are established. In this second perspective, the idea of discrete stages, just like the idea of mental rules and principles, looks more like an artificial, post-hoc imposition by the researcher on the data and the very idea that stages can be extracted from the data is thus dismissed.

 

EXTRACT 2 – Transitivity analysis

 

(NB: Alternative analysis provided for no.9 in red.)

 

EXTRACT 2 – Transitivity analysis

 

1           You      ’re                                                  in a very interesting situation, even an enviable one –

              Carrier Pr: relational, attributive              Attribute

 

although I                        can quite understand         how … frightening         .

 Senser             Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

 

how      it           may seem               frightening

Circ      Carrier Pr: rel, attr              Attribute

 

2           Unlike most teachers,     who      have                                                        no choice in the matter,

Circumstance                 Carrier Pr: relational, attributive    Attribute

 

you       are                      in the exhilarating position … for beginners

Carrier Pr: rel, attr        Attribute

 

[of]       being able to decide               for yourself        how to programme … beginners.

              [Senser = you]  Pr: mental, cognition              Circ                    Phenomenon

 

how      to programme               a course for beginners.

[Actor = you]    Circ      Pr: material              Goal

 

3           Most teachers    are                                                 trapped into having … syllabus”.

              Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

having to march                 their poor students  through the agonies … syllabus”.

              [Actor = most teachers] P: material               Goal                         Circumstance

 

4           All the time       they                    are wondering

              Circumstance   Senser                Pr: mental,. cognition

 

why      their students     seem                                                       incapable … coherent way

                           Circ      Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive    Attribute

 

of putting two words          together in any coherent way.

                           [Actor = their students]      Pr: material             Goal                   Circ      Circ

 

5                                      Don’t be                                       frightened!

              [Carrier = you] Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

6                                      Enjoy                               your freedom

              [Senser = you]  Pr: mental, reaction              Phenomenon

 

– and        let      your students               be                                                  your guide.

              [Assigner = you]   Pr:    Token                 Pr: relational, identifying           Value

[NB: causation]

 

7                         Let’s look at                                  the issues.

              [Senser = us] Pr: mental, cognition               Phenomenon

 

8           First of all, your students             don’t need                                 grammar,

                                 Carrier                      Pr: relational, attributive    Attribute

 

they                    need                                              words – a lot of words and fast.

             Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

9           It           ’s now widely[1] accepted               that language learning … or chunks).

              Ph-       Pr: mental, cognition                  -enomenon

 

OR

 

9           It           ’s                        now widely               accepted             that language learning … or chunks).

              C-         Pr: relational    Circs                   Attribute            -arrier

 

that language learning    is powered,   initially,        by vocabulary: …or chunks).

                                  Goal                         Pr: material  Circ   Actor

 

10         Slowly  the learner         extracts               patterns              out of these words and chunks,

              Circ      Actor                  Pr: material              Goal                   Circ

 

and a kind of early grammar               develops,           just as with a child learning its first language

                     Actor                                     Pr: material             Circ

 

[with]   a child                              learning             its first language

Senser                             Pr: mental  Phenomenon

 

11         So,        you       are                                                 in an incredibly fortunate position.

                           Carrier Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

12         You                    can let   the learners               direct                  you.

              Initiator             Pr:        Actor                  material             Goal

 

13                                    Find out                           what topics they are interested in.

              [Senser = you]  Pr: mental, cognition              Phenomenon

 

what topics                     they                            are                      interested in

                           [part of Attribute]              Carrier              Pr: rel, attrib              Attribute

 

14                                    Provide              them                            with lists of vocabulary … topics,

              [Actor = you]    Pr: material      Goal                           Circ

 

and                     set up                  conversations,

              [Actor = you]    Pr: material      Goal

 

and then                          focus on                                          the problems they are having

              [Senser = you]                Pr: mental, cognition                        Phenomenon

 

the problems      they      are having

                           Scope                 Actor    Pr: material

 

by                       giving                mini-lessons in the grammar they need.

              [Actor = you]    Pr: material      Goal

 

the grammar      they      need

                           Attribute            Carrier Pr: relational, attributive

 

15         The grammar    is                                                   neither inductive nor deductive:

             Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

it                         is                                                   emergent.

             Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

16         And, even if       you       decide                              that       this        is                         too radical,

                                         Senser  Pr: mental, cognition   //      Carrier Pr: rel, attrib              Attribute

 

 

and that you       would rather work through              a traditional grammar book

                            Actor   Pr:material                                   Goal

 

– that                  is                                                   OK

                Carrier           Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

17         But                     do                       an “emergent grammar” lesson from … time – just .. change

              [Actor = you]    Pr: material      Scope                                                       Circ                    Circ

 

– and                  experience                       for yourself        how exciting … lead the lesson.

              [Senser = you]  Pr: mental, cognition              Circ                    Phenomenon

 

how exciting      it           is                            letting the learners lead the lesson

                           Attribute            C-         Pr: re, attrib    -arrier

 

letting   the learners              lead                    the lesson

              [Initiator = you]             Pr:        Actor                           material             Scope

 

 

 

EXTRACT 2 – Theme analysis

 

Themes are in square brackets

 

1           [You]’re in a very interesting situation, even an enviable one

– [although I] can quite understand how it may seem frightening.

2           [Unlike most teachers, who have no choice in the matter], you are in the exhilarating position of being able to decide for yourself how to programme a course for beginners.

3           [Most teachers] are trapped into having to march their poor students through the agonies of the “traditional grammar syllabus”.

4           [All the time] they are wondering why their students seem incapable of putting two words together in any coherent way.

5           [Don’t be] frightened!

6           [Enjoy] your freedom –

[and let] your students be your guide.

7           [Let’s] look at the issues.

8           [First of all, your students] don’t need grammar,

[they] need words – a lot of words and fast.

9           [It’s now widely accepted] that language learning is powered, initially, by vocabulary: the steady accumulation of lexical items, including multi-word units (also called lexical phrases or chunks).

10         [Slowly] the learner extracts patterns out of these words and chunks,

[and a kind of early grammar] develops, just as with a child learning its first language. …

11         [So, you] are in an incredibly fortunate position.

12         [You] can let the learners direct you.

13         [Find out] what topics they are interested in.

14         [Provide] them with lists of vocabulary about these topics and other everyday topics,

[and set up] conversations,

[and then] focus on the problems they are having by giving mini-lessons in the grammar they need.

15         [The grammar] is neither inductive nor deductive:

[it] is emergent.

16         [And, even if you decide that this is too radical, and that you would rather work through a traditional grammar book] – that is OK.

17         [But do] an “emergent grammar” lesson from time to time – just for a change –

[and experience] for yourself how exciting it is letting the learners lead the lesson.

 

EXTRACT 2 – Interpersonal analysis

 

  mood Speech Function Clause Subject Finite Modal expression
1 DEC Statement You’re in a very interesting situation, even an enviable one You are  
  DEC Statement – although I can quite understand I can can
  how it may seem frightening. it may may seem
2 DEC Statement Unlike most teachers, <…>, you are in the exhilarating position of being able to decide for yourself how to programme a course for beginners. you are  
  <who have no choice in the matter> who have  
3 DEC Statement Most teachers are trapped into having to march their poor students through the agonies of the “traditional grammar syllabus”. Most teachers are having to
4 DEC Statement All the time they are wondering They are  
  why their students seem incapable of putting two words together in any coherent way. their students seem seem
4 IMP Command Don’t be frightened! Don’t  
5 IMP Command Enjoy your freedom –  
6 IMP Command and let your students be your guide.  
7 IMP Command Let’s look at the issues. Let’s[2]    
8 DEC Statement / Command (?) First of all, your students don’t need grammar, your students don’t need
  DEC Statement / Command (?) they need words – a lot of words and fast. they need need
9 DEC Statement It’s now widely accepted [that language learning is powered, initially, by vocabulary: the steady accumulation of lexical items, including multi-word units (also called lexical phrases or chunks).] It / that …. chunks   It is widely accepted
  [Language learning is powered, initially, by vocabulary … chunks] language learning is  
10 DEC Statement Slowly the learner extracts patterns out of these words and chunks, the learner extracts  
  DEC Statement and a kind of early grammar develops, just as with a child learning its first language. … a kind of early grammar develops  
11 DEC Statement So, you are in an incredibly fortunate position. you are  
12 DEC Statement / Command (?) You can let the learners direct you. You can can
13 IMP Command Find out what topics [they are interested in[.  
  [they are interested in] they are  
14 IMP Command Provide them with lists of vocabulary about these topics and other everyday topics,  
  IMP Command and set up conversations,  
  IMP Command and then focus on the problems [they are having]  
      [They are having] they are  
      by giving mini-lessons in the grammar they need they need need
15 DEC Statement The grammar is neither inductive nor deductive: The grammar is  
  DEC Statement it is emergent. it is  
16 And, <even if you decide that this is too radical, and that you would rather work through a traditional grammar book>, you

this

you

decide

is

would

would rather
  DEC Statement that is OK that is  
17 IMP Command But do an “emergent grammar” lesson from time to time – just for a change –  
  IMP Command / Offer (?) and experience for yourself  
  how exciting it is letting the learners lead the lesson. it is  

 

 

 

EXTRACT 3 – Transitivity analysis

 

1           Identifying and … development seems to be                                an integral part … learning,

              Token                                           Pr: relational, identifying    Value

 

Identifying and analysing    stages of development

               [Senser = researchers?]  Pr: mental, cognition (2x)   Phenomenon

 

the way   people             study                                          second language learning

                           Circ        Senser             Pr: mental, cognition           Phenomenon

 

but do language learners actually               develop              the L2 grammar   through … stages

                           Actor                                             Pr: material      Scope                    Circ

 

or is                                               the reality   more one of gradual change?

              Pr: relational, attributive              Carrier              Attribute

 

2           Should          evidence … behaviour               be treated                        as noise …or … interest?

              [Senser = ?]   Phenomenon                      Pr: mental, cognition    Circ

 

3           The question      is,                                     of course,           heavily theory-dependent.

              Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive                       Attribute

 

4           Ever since the start of second language acquisition (SLA) research in the early 1970s,

              Circumstance

 

the literature has certainly been                            full of references to ‘stages’.

              Carrier              Pr: relational, attributive          Attribute

 

5           Typically,          for those who … that knowledge,

                                         Circumstance

 

who      make                                a distinction between knowledge and … knowledge,

                           Senser  Pr: mental, cognition              Phenomenon

 

to perform               that knowledge,

                           [Actor = ?]        Pr: material               Range

 

the growth of an L2               has always been seen     as passing … states’:

              [Senser = ?] Phenomenon                        Pr: mental, cognition    Circ

 

passing               through series of discrete ‘knowledge states’:

                           [Actor = ?]        Pr: material              Circ

observable phenomena that … stages   are dismissed                  as noise in the data.

              [Senser = ?] Phenomenon                                     Pr: mental, cognition    Circ

 

phenomena that               obscure              this idea of stages

                                         Actor                 Pr: material             Goal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6           At the same time, the idea that …backsliding,         does surface      in the literature,

                                            Actor                                         Pr: material      Circ

 

especially in longitudinal studies where … is very evident

              Circ

development      does not actually proceed   in neatly definable …backsliding,

                           Actor                  Pr: material                                Circ

 

where   the gradual … nature of development is                        very evident

                           Circ      Carrier                                                       Pr: rel, attrib              Attribute

 

(see,                                 for example,      Cancino et al. 1978).

              [Senser = you]  Pr: mental, cognition                                         Phenomenon

 

7           Theoretical preferences may equally bias   the researcher   in the other direction … stages:

              Actor                               Pr: material                  Goal                  Circ

 

if                               a behaviourist or connectionist approach to acquisition      is adopted,

              [Actor = researcher]    Goal                                                                                            Pr: material

 

then, provided there       is                         continuous exposure to the L2,

                                                       Pr: existential              Existent

 

there     can only be        gradual development

                           Pr: existential   Existent

 

as old connections          are gradually strengthened and            new connections    are established.

                  Goal                             Pr: <Circ> material                 //       Goal                        Pr: material

 

8           In this second perspective,          the idea of discrete stages, …principles,  looks

              Circ                                               Carrier                                                       Pr: relational, attrib

 

more like an artificial, post-hoc imposition by the researcher on the data

              Attribute

 

and             the very idea that stages can be extracted from the data   is thus dismissed.

              [Senser = ?] Phenomenon                                                                     Pr: mental, cognition

 

stages          can be extracted            from the data

                           [Actor = ?] Goal             Pr: material                          Circ

 

 

 

EXTRACT 3 – Theme analysis

 

Themes are in square brackets [] (not curved brackets in, e.g., sentence 6).

 

1           [Identifying and analysing stages of development] seems to be an integral part of the way people study second language learning,

[but do language learners] actually develop the L2 grammar through a series of discrete stages

[or is the reality] more one of gradual change?

2           [Should evidence of variation and instability in learner behaviour] be treated as noise in the data or short-term transitional phenomena of no theoretical interest?

3           [The question] is, of course, heavily theory-dependent.

4           [Ever since the start of second language acquisition (SLA) research in the early 1970s], the literature has certainly been full of references to ‘stages’.

5           [Typically, for those who make a distinction between knowledge and the ability to perform that knowledge], the growth of an L2 has always been seen as passing through series of discrete ‘knowledge states’:

[observable phenomena that obscure this idea of stages] are dismissed as noise in the data.

6           [At the same time, the idea that development does not actually proceed in neatly definable stages, and with no backsliding], does surface in the literature, especially in longitudinal studies where the gradual and somewhat unruly nature of development is very evident

(see, for example, Cancino et al. 1978).

7           [Theoretical preferences] may equally bias the researcher in the other direction as well, away from stages:

[if a behaviourist or connectionist approach to acquisition is adopted], then, provided there is continuous exposure to the L2, there can only be gradual development as old connections are gradually strengthened and new connections are established.

8           [In this second perspective], the idea of discrete stages, just like the idea of mental rules and principles, looks more like an artificial, post-hoc imposition by the researcher on the data

[and the very idea that stages can be extracted from the data] is thus dismissed.

 

 

 

EXTRACT 3 – Interpersonal analysis

 

  mood Speech Function Clause Subject Finite Modal expression
1 DEC Statement Identifying and analysing stages of development seems to be an integral part […] Identifying … development seems seems
  [of the way people study second language learning] people study  
  INT Question but do language learners actually develop the L2 grammar through a series of discrete stages language learners do actually
  INT Question or is the reality more one of gradual change? the reality is the reality
2 INT Question Should evidence of variation and instability in learner behaviour be treated as noise in the data or short-term transitional phenomena of no theoretical interest? evidence … behaviour should should
3 DEC Statement The question is, of course, heavily theory-dependent. The question is of course
4 DEC Statement Ever since the start of second language acquisition (SLA) research in the early 1970s, the literature has certainly been full of references to ‘stages’. The literature has certainly
5 DEC Statement Typically, <…>, the growth of an L2 has always been seen as passing through series of discrete ‘knowledge states’: The growth of an L2 has Typically

 

always

  <for those who make a distinction between knowledge and the ability to perform that knowledge>, who make  
  DEC Statement observable phenomena [that obscure this idea of stages] are dismissed as noise in the data. Observable … stages are  
  [that obscure this idea of stages] that obscure  
6 DEC Statement At the same time, the idea [that development does not actually proceed in neatly definable stages, and with no backsliding], does surface in the literature, The idea … backsliding does  
  [development does not actually proceed … backsliding] Development does not actually
  especially in longitudinal studies where the gradual and somewhat unruly nature of development is very evident The gradual … development is evident
  IMP Command (see, for example, Cancino et al. 1978).  
7 DEC Statement Theoretical preferences may equally bias the researcher in the other direction as well, away from stages: Theoretical preferences may may
  if a behaviourist or connectionist approach to acquisition is adopted, then, a behaviourist … acquisition is  
  provided there is continuous exposure to the L2, there is  
  DEC Statement there can only be gradual development There can  
      <as old connections are gradually strengthened and new connections are established.> old connections

 

new connections

are

 

 

are

 
8 DEC Statement In this second perspective, the idea of discrete stages, just like the idea of mental rules and principles, looks more like an artificial, post-hoc imposition by the researcher on the data the idea … principles looks looks
  DEC Statement and the very idea [that stages can be extracted from the data] is thus dismissed. the very idea … data is  
      [stages can be extracted from the data] stages … data is can

 

 

Essay:

 

Though the theory about functional grammar is not newly discussed, 40 years after the first invented, its implementation in daily classroom are still limited due to the complicated approach with massive numbers of concepts and terms. However, researchers stressed the importance of this method to students’ master in using the language (Halliday, 1994). Halliday proposed that the category of grammar is a difficult concept can be expressed in words. For example, the plural category in grammar on the one hand is the name of the relationship between that category and the experience of the world the speaker’s objectivity, on the other hand, is the name of the grammatical category that represents that relationship. Later, he sharpened the concept and introduced the concept of systemic grammar, and then finally system-function grammar (systemic functional grammar is used parallel with the concept of functional linguistics system (Halliday, 1994).

According to Halliday, the father of the functional grammar approach, he stressed the importance of the context in which the language is presented. Differently speaking, rather than considering grammar is a fixed body, he believed that grammar factors contribute significantly to the mean-making of the text and to the massage that author wants to convey. Agreeing with Halliday, Thompson in his grounding book about “Introducing Functional Grammar” he suggested that the name of the approach was resulted from its core functions and that “A functional grammar is essentially a ‘natural’ grammar, in the sense that everything in it can be explained, ultimately, by reference to how language is used” (Halliday, 1994:8). In this book, he specified three main basic functions of the adult’s language, including ideational meta-function, ie people use language to describe the world objectively, function of interpersonal communication or so called interpersonal meta-function or use language to encode roles and social status association of people involved in communication and organization textual or internal transformation. He added that language usage grately depends on communication channel.

These three functions can also be called macro function, Halliday assumes all of the above languages in the world has two basic functions: ideational function allows people use language to describe the outside world and interpersonal communication function allows the innermost members a community of languages ​​communicating with each other. All of these meta-functions can be combined to understand the language in a specific context. It is divided into three parts: (1) field or range speech (field); (2) relations between people participate in communication (tenor); and (3) good consciousness mode of communication (mode). With understanding such a scenario, we can deduce that the relationship between the cultural and social environment language selection is a two-way relationship. Certain communication will affect that meaning we intend to express and form language the language we choose to express its content there. Likewise, by choosing some form of language we have created these meaningful, interpersonal and expressive documents are different so of course it will work impact on school, communication and direction Communication protocol is created. Simply put that we choose the right language form to convey the content you want to announce (meaning) and the content of that notice or meaning is expressed by the language we choose. The language scene with the above understanding is the same social behavior, both relational structure and at the same time organization signal.

To be more specific, the Ideational metafunction focus on experience of people and the way we perceive our real world.The analysis of ideational metafunction should related to the investigation of the author’s choice of in transitivity, that is “process types, participant types, circumstance types, combined with an analysis of the resources through which clauses are combined” (Halliday, 1960). Secondly, it is interpersonal metafunction which regard to interaction express in text expressing the relation between the writer and audiences, including “speaker/writer persona, social distance, and relative social status” (Thompson). Thirdly is the textual metafunction which deeply look at the combination of other factors such as “hesitators, pauses and repetitions” (Thompson, 1960:96). With the view of language according to the practices socially as above, Halliday argued that language is a systemic resource for expression meaning in the context, not the set fixed grammar rules. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze language in the ways in which language is spoken language “realizing meaning in context”. This is one of Halliday’s differences with the views of Chomsky and linguists. The structure learns that language is a visual system ergonomics, syntax. Agreeing with him, Thompson proposed that the subject of speech language is text, not sentence and the reference element is usage, not grammaticality, such he distinguished between grammar language with grammar

 

The theory about grammatical choices from the theory of Halliday and Thompson will be used below to analyze the text from Extract 2 and Extract 3.

 

Firstly, regarding the theme choice, while considering the communicative purpose of the extract 2, we can see the unmarked theme choice, and more specifically, imperative clause. This type of cause can be used to command other people to conduct the action and the initiator of the sentence would be the Predicator describing the behaviors. The Finite of do or don’t can be added when the write want to express different meaning of negative or emphatic imperative. While the majority of this type of clause, the subject conducting the action is the same with the addressee, but in some cases, it would be different if the writer use “let’s” refereeing to the involvement of both subject and saying people.

 

[Don’t be] frightened!

 

[Enjoy] your freedom
[and let] your students be your guide.
[Let’s] look at the issues.
Theme Rheme

 

Differently, the Extract 3 is a simple declarative clause. Normally, with this kind of clause, there is the uniform between Theme and Subject. Subject is the ‘normal’ theme choice in declarative clauses. Thus, it can be referred as unmarked theme choice. In the Extract 3 you can see below, the Subject here are quite extensive. In these cases, it is the whole nominal group that is theme. According to Thompson, “the Subject may also be a nominal group complex, such as language learners” or “for those who make a distinction between knowledge and the ability to perform that knowledge”.

[Identifying and analysing stages of development] seems to be an integral part of the way people study second language learning
[but do language learners] actually, develop the L2 grammar through a series of discrete stages
[or is the reality] more one of gradual change?
(Typically, for those who make a distinction between knowledge and the ability to perform that knowledge] the growth of an L2 has always been seen as passing through series of discrete ‘knowledge states’
Theme Rheme

 

As the Extract 3 is a research article, we can easily realize that they used the theme in reported clause. One of the most challenge when investigating theme is the treatment with reported clauses with the quotes from other researchers. Normally, when quoting people, the analysis is normally straightforward: the people who quote the speech would make a similar theme choice as the speakers. However, it is quite different with indirect speech where the decision to treat the projected clause as forming a T-unit with its projecting clause is challenging.

Cancino et al. (1978) mentioned that At the same time, the idea thatdevelopment does not actually proceed in neatly definable stages, and with no backsliding], does surface in the literature, especially in longitudinal studies where the gradual and somewhat unruly nature of development is very evident

 

Theme Rheme

In contrast, in Extract 2, the writers are arguing from his personal opinions, and therefore, the writer here used the subject with two additional purposes: forwarding the subject, mainly through the student’s interpretation of grammar learning, and at the same time, giving prominence to self-awareness. The writer’s presentation as an appropriate force for change can interpret and recognize the need to negotiate validity with the reader. Examples like these assist the usefulness of viewing propositions between individuals as elements in a larger multiple. If a narrower definition of the Topic is passed, meaning the eight Topics in the ranking clauses would be either ‘it’ or ‘there (is)’, this would give a much less convincing picture. about how the text is staged.

 [You]–

 

 

 

 

’re in a very interesting situation, even an enviable one
[although I] can quite understand how it may seem frightening.

 

[Unlike most teachers, who have no choice in the matter] , you are in the exhilarating position of being able to decide for yourself how to programme a course for beginners.
Theme Rheme

 

 

REFERENCE

Halliday, M.A.K. 1970: Language structure and language function. In Lyons, J. (ed.), New horizons in linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 140–165.

Halliday, M.A.K. 1976: System and function in language (ed. G. Kress). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thompson, G. 2009a: Systemic functional grammar. In Chapman, S. and Routledge, C. (eds), Key ideas in linguistics and the philosophy of language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 225–232.

 

[1] NB: No. 9 – ‘now’ + ‘widely’ are both Circumstances.

[2] This is a ‘let’s’ imperative. Halliday sees ‘let’s’ as a wayward form of the Subject. Note that ‘look’ in this clause is not the Finite, but Predicator (compare: ‘let’s look at the issues’; ‘don’t let’s look at the issues’).