Health, Illness And Culture.

Based on the various definitions of health, define health and explain if you agree with one definition more than the other? Why?

Instructions:

Use an APA 7 style and a minimum of 350 words. Provide support from a minimum of at least (4) scholarly sources. The scholarly source needs to be: 1) evidence-based, 2) scholarly in nature, 3) Sources should be no more than five years old (published within the last 5 years), and 4) an in-text citation. citations and references are included when information is summarized/synthesized and/or direct quotes are used, in which APA 7 style standards apply.

• Textbooks are not considered scholarly sources. 

• Wikipedia, Wikis, .com website or blogs should not be used.

*Extra resources:

Introduction

Our nation has been a melting pot of cultures since its birth and this multiculturalism is increasing rapidly. This diversity is creating a significant challenge for interactions at all levels of society, particularly in healthcare. In order to meet this challenge,  advanced practice nurses must first understand the concept of culture, as well as health and illness.

Culture is defined by Dayer-Berenson, as “the shared values, traditions, norms, customs, arts, history, folklore, and institutions of a group of people who are unified by race, ethnicity, language, nationality, sexual orientation, and/or religion.”(2014). In order to help our patients connect with their healthcare providers, it is vital as advanced practice nurses to provide culturally sensitive and competent care. This will help us identify healthcare disparities and their impact on current health care in the United States.

Learning objectives for the module:

At the end of this module, the student will be able to:

  1. Define health and illness
  2. Define diversity
  3. Identify ways to provide culturally competent care
  4. Describe the impact of diversity on healthcare disparities

Readings:

  1. Andrews & Boyle, J. , Chapters 2, 3
  2. The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services by Campinha-Bacote (2002)
    http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.wilkes.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/10459602013003003
  3. Cultural Competence for Healthcare Providers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNLtAj0wy6I&feature=related

Websites:

  1. The Model of Cultural Competence through Evolutionary Concept Analysis by Suh (2004). http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.wilkes.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/1043659603262488
  2. Communication Between Cultures: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlMf_RGlaQU

Topic 1: Health and Illness

The concepts of health and illness are not easily defined and are difficult to understand. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease.”  Other definitions include the state of being free from illness or injury or a general condition of the body or mind in equilibrium. The many definitions of health make it difficult to grasp and understand its meaning. The definitions of illness are just as elusive. Is it the absence or opposite of health or is it better defined as a disease or condition?  No matter the definition we need to understand that the experience of being ill is also defined by the patient.   What health may mean to a 21-year-old athlete versus a 60-year-old diabetic will vary greatly. Therefore we find individuals defining health and illness according to their own definitions. We also must realize that culture greatly affects one’s definition of health and illness, therefore as advanced practice nurses in order to provide competent care we must understand health and illness from our client’s perspective.

Topic 2: Cultural Diversity

The United States is a multicultural nation made up of cultures from around the world. According to the US Census Bureau, Asian and mixed-race people are the two fastest-growing populations in the US. Although non-Hispanic whites remain the largest group of Americans at 198 million, they are the only group with a higher death rate than the birth rate. Hispanics follow the non-Hispanic whites at 57.5 million and blacks or African Americans at 46.8 million. With the increase in these diverse populations come issues that tremendously affect their health care. Language barriers and low incomes lead to lower access and availability of health care and therefore less favorable outcomes according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report (2003). This results in daily challenges for the nurse to identify the diverse needs of the patients and address them in order to provide quality health care. In order to combat these culturally driven healthcare disparities, the advanced practice nurse must be prepared to meet the unique healthcare needs of all culturally diverse patients in their care.