Answer the question in 200-400 words.
Answer the question as fully as possible in clear, legible, grammatical prose.
Include titles of artworks that serve as your examples, names of scholars we have read if appropriate, and any other details that will help support your argument.
- Describe how Harlem Renaissance artists drew inspiration from the visual cultures of the African continent. Why did they do so? How was this part of conceptualizing Black Americans as modern?
- How did the issues of white patronage and educators affect both Indigenous and Black modern artists in the early twentieth century?
- What does it mean to be modern? Why were Black and Native Americans not considered by whites to be modern? How did Black and Native modernists challenge this perspective?
- During the early twentieth century many European artists challenged idea of a painting as a “window” into a coherent and believable reality. Choose one painting that challenged the representational logic of the “window.” Describe the aesthetic qualities of the painting that pose this challenge, why the painter employed these tactics, and any relevant social or political contexts that made the painting meaningful.
- Describe how the Readymade caused the following questions to become a fundamental concern of modernism: What is art? How do we know it? Who determines what counts as art? Use one or two artworks as evidence to support your answer.
- How was primitivist modernism part of major turning points in European modernism before World War I? How did stereotypes about Indigenous and colonized peoples affect both the meaning and appearance of modern art? In your answer be sure to use at least two artworks as evidence.