This module explores the relationship between globalization and new media from a cultural perspective, key areas are:


  • Technology, global markets and the global division of labour.
  • Cultural commodification, media production and consumption.
  • Consumer citizenship and activism
  • The relationship between the local and global.
  • Resistance, new social movements and ICTS (information communication technology).
  • Transnational communities and the internet.
  • Questions of identity and belonging, the self and the internet.


It concentrates on the global expansion of capitalism, the shift from industrial to service and information economies and the significance of the ‘cultural’ as an expanding arena of production and consumption. It examines the rise and spread of global media conglomerates, the diffusion of new technologies of communication and the manner in which old political, cultural and social boundaries, particularly those of the nation, are being challenged by new networks of an emerging global civil society and by transnational communities. It explores new forms of affiliation and solidarity and asks whether multiple identifications will replace local forms of belonging?


Module Aims and Objectives

This module aims to increase students’ understanding of:


  • the development of global economic processes and technology, including modes of production, markets and consumption
  • the increasing importance of the ‘cultural’ as an area of production and consumption
  • the role of new media and ‘alternative’ media spaces.
  • The impact of ‘traditional’ and new media on social spaces and identity.
  • the importance of local and regional contexts in the processes of globalization.

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the module, students will have gained a critical understanding of the development of global economic processes, including modes of production, markets and consumption, the increasing importance of the ‘cultural’ as an area of production and consumption. They will have also enhanced their critical reading and writing skills through the various forms of assessment.


You said – we did: changes in response to student feedback on the Module

-Introduced two introductory lectures to set out the key concepts and historical context of globalization, rather than one lecture.

-Increased the lectures from one hour to two with seminars


Teaching and Learning on the Module

There will be recorded lectures available for you to access through the Blackboard module.  There will be a ‘live’ seminar through Blackboard Collaborate you will be expected to join these sessions.  As such, it is expected that you will prepare for each class by reading the relevant texts. In addition to the discussion activities, there are two pieces of formally assessed work for this module, details of which are provided below. Further support will be given in two face to face session in November and December to talk through the assessment requirements.  If you are unable to attend those sessions or simply need help and advice I will be available through email and you can have individual support through Microsoft teams.

In addition, this module is part of a College Teaching Enhancement Funded project ‘Integrated Critical Reading Module’ run in conjunction with the project lead by Dagmara Grabas and Aaron Wise at the ELTU. What this means is that students attending ELTU sessions (and students who would like to) will be given strategies on how to critically read the texts on this module.  Please note, by participating in these sessions they do not have any formal relationship to your assessment and attendance of this module they are entirely voluntary-however they are designed to help and support your critical reading skills.  Students who do not attend the sessions are not at a disadvantage as they will be supported in the same way through in class session and drop in support via Teams. Any questions or queries about this please contact the module leader -see below.


We are all available online to discuss any of the issues on the course or to talk through your assignments.  We are all based in Astley Clark for bookable face to face appointments.




  1. Critical reading exercise: 500 words (20%)
  2. One essay 3500-4000 words. (80%)


Critical writing exercise: Students will be required to submit one 500 word piece of critical reflection on a core reading (of their choice from any reading across the course). This will be a pass/fail assignment and will be an opportunity for students to receive feedback/feed-forward prior to the major summative assessment.


Essay 3500-4000– Essay titles are provided below please select ONE question from those listed below.

The submitted course work must be typed or word-processed.

You must submit your assignment electronically to TurnitinUK via Blackboard under their relevant module on Blackboard e.g. MS7083 assignments should be submitted under the MS7083 module.








Essay Questions


  1. Are we in a ‘post-globalisation’ world as argued by Flew (2018, 2020)?


  1. How relevant are older theoretical paradigms (1990s onwards) such as cultural imperialism in our understanding of the contemporary globalised world?


  1. Do we need to ‘de-westernise’ global media and communication studies? Set out your response with relevant examples.


  1. According to Ronald Robertson, glocalization signifies ‘the simultaneity – the co-presence – of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies. With examples, set out and explain if you agree with Robertson’s position.



  1. With reference to relevant theories of globalization and the global economy, critically evaluate if and to what extend digital media have exacerbated the inequalities of the global economy.


  1. With reference to relevant theories from the literature, discuss if and to what extent consumption and consumer culture is a legitimate and effective form of political action.


  1. In what ways can consumer-led movements like ‘slow fashion’ present an effective challenge to global capitalism? Discuss with reference to relevant theory.


  1. What has been the impact of digital technology on the globalisation of religion? Discuss, exploring a specific example of your choice and with use of appropriate literature.


  1. Discuss how media consumption and the use of ICTs are constitutive of diasporic communities. Discuss with reference to relevant theories, concepts and examples.


  1. Explore the view that identity in the current globalized environment is no longer a given but something we increasingly question. Explore this question with reference to literature on the self, technology and globalisation.







Lecture Schedule

Lecture/date Topic Lecturer
1:  Introduction I – Overview of globalization studies, key perspectives and concepts TS
2.  Introduction II – theoretical terrains and current debates TS
3. Globalization and the Media TS
4.  Glocalization and cultural hybridity MT
5.  Globalization and the World Economy: Power, Inequality and Alternative Approaches       MT
6. Reading Week  
7.  Political Participation and Consumer Activism/Citizenship MT
8.  The Politics of Slow Fashion MT
9. Globalisation, religion and technology, the case of digital religion and ‘audience-believers’. AC/JWH
10. Diaspora, transnational communities and new media TS
11. Globalization, technology and the self TS

TS – Tracy Simmons; MT – Maria Touri AC-Anna Claydon/JWH-Jo Whitehouse-Hart


Lecture 1: Introduction I – Overview of globalization studies, key perspectives and concepts (Tracy Simmons)

This lecture is an introduction to key concepts and pathways into globalization. The lecture also highlights the multidisciplinary perspectives and key scholars in the field. It considers more recent debates that argue that globalisation is being challenged by a resurgence ‘nationalism’ -we consider whether Covid 19 has exacerbated this.

Key reading:

Flew, T. (2018) Post-Globalisation, Javnost – The Public, 25:1-2, 102-109*, DOI: 10.1080/13183222.2018.1418958

Ritzer, G. (2011) Globalization: The Essentials. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell (see chapter 1)

Tuncer, F.F. (2020) The spread of fear in the globalizing world: The case of COVID-19, J Public Affairs DOI: 10.1002/pa.2162

Further reading:

Bell, D and Kennedy, B.M. (2000) The Cybercultures Reader London: Routledge. (See chapter 47)

Dasgupta, S. and Pieterse, J.N. (2009) Politics of Globalization London: Sage (see especially ‘Prologue’)

Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. (See chapter 1)

Held, D. et al., (eds) (1999) Global Transformations. Cambridge: Polity. (See conclusion)

Kloet, J.D.; Lin, J and Chow, YF. (2020) ‘We are doing better’: Biopolitical nationalism and the COVID-19 virus in East Asia, European Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 23(4) 635–640

Murray, W.E. (2006) Geographies of Globalization Abingdon: Routledge (see chapter 1)

Nayer, P. (2004) Virtual Worlds New Delhi, Sage. (See chapter 1)

Robertson, R. (1990) ‘Mapping the Global Condition’ in (eds) M. Featherstone,, Global Culture. London: Sage.

Rondinelli, D.A. (2007) Globalization and change in Asia Boulder: Lynne Rienner Pub. (see chapter by Rondinelli)

Scholte, J.A. (2005) Globalization, a critical introduction. London: Palgrave. (See section 1)

Sklair, L. (2002) Globalization: Capitalism and Its Alternatives Oxford: OUP. (See introduction)

Slevin, J (2000) The Internet and Society Oxford: Polity.

Stald, G and Tufte, T. (2001) Global Encounters: Media and Cultural Transformation Luton: University of Luton Press. (See part1)



Lecture 2: Introduction II – Theoretical terrains and current debates (Tracy Simmons)

This lecture continues with the key foundations of the topic with a focus on key concepts and theoretical debates. We map out how theoretical debates have shifted from a focus on the Cultural imperialism paradigm focusing on US cultural hegemony to ‘mixed hegemony’ and a focus on Asia.

Key reading:


Flew, T. (2020) Globalization, neo-globalization and post-globalization: The challenge of populism and the return of the national, Global Media and Communication, Vol. 16(1) 19–39

Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. (See chapter 2)

Kofman, E. and Youngs, G. (eds) 2008: Globalization: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed. London: Continuum. (see chapter 1)

Further Reading:

Barney, D. (2004) The Network Society. Cambridge: Polity.

Murray, W.E. (2006) Geographies of Globalization Abingdon: Routledge (see chapters 2 and 3)

Ritzer, G. (2011) Globalization The Essentials Wiley-Blackwell (see chapter 2)

Scholte, J.A. (2000) Globalization, a critical introduction. London: Palgrave.

Slevin, J (2000) The Internet and Society Oxford: Polity. (See chapter 3)

Thussu, D (2000) International Communication London: Arnold (see chapter 2)

Tomlinson, J. (1999) ‘Globalised culture: the triumph of the West?’ in (eds) T. Skelton and T. Allen Culture and Global Change London: Routledge

Youngs, G. 2007. Global Political Economy in the Information Age: Power and Inequality. London: Routledge. See especially Introduction and Chapter 4.



Lecture 3: Globalization and the Media (Tracy Simmons)

This lecture traces the development of global media conglomerates and convergence, the impact of digitisation on traditional media structures.  We then explore what these changes mean in terms of media flows and content.

Key reading:


Bagdikian, B.H. (2004)  The New Media Monopoly Boston, Mass. : Beacon Press. (See chapter 2 and 3)

Rantanen, T. (2005) The Media and Globalization  London:Sage (See chapter 2 and 4)

Jin, D.Y. (2020) Encounters with Western media theory: Asian perspectives, Media, Culture & Society 1–8.

Further reading:

Appadurai, A. (1990) ‘Disjuncture and Dislocation in the Global Political Economy’, in M. Featherstone (ed) Global culture London: Sage.

Curtin, M. (2005) ‘Murdoch’s dilemma, or ‘What’s the price of TV in China?’ Media Culture and Society, 27(2):155-175.

Gambarato, R., Alzamora, G.C., Tárcia, L.P.T., & Jurno, A.C. (2017). ‘2014 FIFA World Cup on the Brazilian Globo Network: A transmedia dynamics?’ Global Media and Communication, 13(3), 283–301.

Hafez, K. (2007) The myth of media globalization Cambridge: Polity (see especially ‘The case of Al-Jazeera’)

Held, D and McGrew, A. (eds) (2003) The Global Transformations Reader: an introduction to the globalization debate Cambridge: Polity Press (See chapters 21 and 22)

Herman, E. and McChesney, R.  (1997) The Global Media London: Cassell

Jin, D.J. (2007) ‘Reinterpretation of cultural imperialism: emerging domestic market vs continuing US dominance.’ Media, Culture and Society, 29(5):753-771.

Jung, H. (2019) Agenda-setting in the realm of popular culture: The case of the Korean Wave in East Asia, Global Media and Communication, Vol. 15(3) 361–377.

Guan, T. (2019) The ‘authoritarian determinism’ and reductionisms in China-focused political communication studies, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 41(5) 738–750.

Küng, L.; Picard, R.G. and Towse, R. (2008) The Internet and the Mass Media London: Sage (see chapters 2 and 4)

Mato, D. (2005) ‘The Transnationalization of the Telenovela Industry, Territorial References, and the Production of Markets and Representations of Transnational Identities.’ Television and New Media, 6(4):423-444.

McChesney, R. (1998) ‘Media Convergence and Globalisation’ in D. Thussu, (ed) Electronic Empires,  London: Arnold

Miladi, N. (2006) ‘Satellite TV News and the Arab Diaspora in Britain: Comparing Al-Jazeera, the BBC and CNN.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(6), 947-960.

Samuel-Azran, T; Assaf, I; Salem, A; Wahabe, L; Halabi, N. (2016) ‘Is there a Qatari–Al-Jazeera nexus? Coverage of the 2022 FIFA World Cup controversy by Al-Jazeera versus Sky News, CNNI and ITV,’ Global Media and Communication, December 2016, Vol.12(3), pp.195-209.

Sanson, K and Steirer, G. (2019) Hulu, streaming, and the contemporary television ecosystem, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 41(8) 1210–1227

Schiller, D. (1999) Digital Capitalism London: MIT Press

Sparks, C. (2007) Globalization, Development and the Mass Media Sage: London

Sreberny, A. (1997) “The Global and the Local in Mass Communication” in Curran and Gurevitch, Mass Media and Society, 3rd edition

Stevenson, N. (1996) The Transformation of the Media London:Longman (See chapter 5)

Thomas, A.O. (2005) Imagi-Nations and Borderless Television, Media Culture and Politics Across Asia London: Sage (see chapters 2, 3 and 5)

Tomlinson, J. (1991) Cultural Imperialism London: Pinter publishers. (See chapter 2)

Thussu, D.K. (2007) ‘The ‘Murdochization’ of news? The case of Star TV in India.’ Media, Culture and Society, 29:593-611.

Thussu, D.K. (2010) International Communication A Reader London: Routledge (see part 3 and 4)

Thussu, D.K (2013) ‘De-Americanising Media Studies and the Rise of “Chindia”, Javnost – The Public, 20:4, 31-44, DOI: 10.1080/13183222.2013.11009126


Lecture 4: Glocalization and cultural hybridity (Maria Touri)

This session considers the relationship between the global and the local. What has been the impact of the global

on local spaces and vice‐versa? In addition

Key reading:


Robertson, R. (1995) ‘Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity’ in M. Featherstone, Global Modernities. London: Sage.

Roudometof, V. (2016) Glocalization: A Critical Introduction, London: Routledge (Chapters 3 and 6)

Thussu, D. (2010) International Communication A Reader London: Routledge (Chapter 12)


Further reading:


Abu-Lughod, L. (1997) “Finding a place for Islam: Egyptian television serials and the national interest” in A. Sreberny-Mohammadi et al., Media in Global Context, A Reader London:Arnold

Barber, B. (1996) Jihad vs McWorld, New York: Ballantine Books

Calhoun, C. (2003) ‘Belonging’in the Cosmopolitan Imaginary, Ethnicities 3(4):531-553

Gillespie, M (1997) “Local uses of the media: negotiating culture and identity” in A. Sreberny-Mohammadi et al., Media in Global Context, A Reader London:Arnold

Hess, D.J (2009) Localist Movements in a Global Economy Cambridge: MIT Press (see especially chapter 7)

Pieterse, J.N. (2009) Globalization and Culture: Global Melange, Blue Ridge Summit: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group

Ram, U. (2004) ‘Glocommodification: How the global consumes the local-McDonald’s in Israel,’ Current Sociology, 52(1):11-31.

Reyaz, M. (2016), ‘Glocalization and the Media: Studies from the South’, International Studies

50(3) 240–254

Ritzer, G. (2011) Globalization The Essentials  Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell (See chapter 7)

Sassen, S. (2004) ‘Local Actors in Global Politics,’ Current Sociology, 52(4):649-670.

Schelling, V. (1999) ‘‘The People’s radio’ of Vila Nossa Senhora Aparecida: alternative communication and cultures of resistance in Brazil’ in (ed) T. Skelton and T. Allen Culture and Global Change London: Routledge

Slevin, J (2000) The Internet and Society Oxford: Polity. (See chapter 8)

Sreberny-Mohammadi, A. (1997) ‘The Global and the Local in International Communications’ in J. Curran and M. Gurevitch (eds) Mass Media and Society (2nd ed) London:Arnold.

Straubhaar, (1997) “Distinguishing the global, regional and national levels of world television” in A. Sreberny-Mohammadi et al., Media in Global Context, A Reader London:Arnold

Thussu, D.K. (1998)  ‘Localising the global, Zee TV in India’ in D. Thussu (eds) Electronic Empires. London: Arnold.

Thussu, D.K. (2016) ‘The soft power of popular cinema – the case of India’, Journal of Political Power, 9:3, 415-429, DOI: 10.1080/2158379X.2016.1232288

Waisbord, S. (2004) ‘McTV Understanding the Global Popularity of Television Formats’, Television and New Media, 5 (4):359-383


Lecture 5: Globalization and the World Economy: Power, Inequality and Alternative Approaches (Maria Touri)


Key reading

Daniels, P. (2012), An introduction to human geography: issues for the 21st century, Harlow: Prentice Hall (Section 4)

Hirst, P. (2009), Globalization in question: the international economy and the possibilities of governance, Cambridge: Polity Press (Chapters 2-6)

Murray, W. E. and Overton, J. (2014), Geographies of Globalization, London: Routledge (Chapter 4)

Peck, J. and Yeung, H.W.C. (2003), Remaking the Global Economy: Economic-Geographical Perspectives, SAGE (Chapter 2, 6 and 13).


Supplementary reading

Barney, D. (2013), The Network Society, New York: John Wiley & Sons (Chapter 3)

Castells, M. (2010), The rise of the network society, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell

Coe, N. M., Kelly, P.F. and Yeung, H. W.C. (2013), Economic geography: a contemporary introduction, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell

Dicken, P. (2015), Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy, Los Angeles, California: SAGE

Foster, C. (2017), ‘Reconsidering the role of the digital in global production networks’, Global Networks, 17(1):68-88

Gibson-Graham, J. K. (2006), A postcapitalist politics, Minneapolis, Minn.; London: University of Minnesota Press,

Gwynne, R.N., Klak, T., Shaw, D.J.B (2003) Alternative Capitalisms: Geographies of Emerging Regions, London: Arnold

Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J. (1999), Global transformations: politics, economics and culture, Cambridge: Polity Press (Chapter 5)

Herman, E. and McChesney, R.  (1997) The Global Media London: Cassell

Kwon, R. (2014), ‘What factors matter for trade at the global level? Testing five approaches to globalization, 1820–2007’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 54(5-6): 391-419

Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1994), Economies of signs and space, London: Sage

Leyshon, A., Lee, R. and Williams, C.C. (2003), Alternative Economic Spaces, London; Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE (Introduction)

Lindio-McGovern, L. and Wallimann, I. (2009) Globalization and Third World Women: Exploitation, Coping and Resistance, Farnham: Ashgate (Chapter 7)

Mander, J. and Goldsmith, E. (2014) The Case Against the Global Economy: And for a Turn Towards Localization, London: Earthscan

Matusitz, J. (2014) ‘Grobalization: An Analysis of the Wal-Martization of the World’, Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 26:298–315

McKinnon, D. and Cumbers, A. (2011), Introduction to Economic Geography: Globalization, Uneven Development and Place, London, Routledge

Mosco, V.  (2006) Knowledge and Media Workers in the Global Economy: Antimonies of Outsourcing, Social Identities, 12:6, 771-790, DOI: 10.1080/13504630601030958

Ritzer, G. and Dean, P. (2014), Globalization: A Basic Text, Hoboken: Wiley (Chapters 6, 7)

Sen, A. (1999), Development as freedom, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Sklair, L. (2002) Globalization: Capitalism and its Alternatives, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slater, D. and Tonkiss, F. (2001), Market society: markets and modern social theory, Cambridge: Polity

Tonkiss, F. (2006), Contemporary economic sociology: globalisation, production, inequality, London: Routledge

Waters, M. (2001), Globalization, London: Routledge (Chapters 2 and 3)

White, A. (2016) Digital Media and Society: Transforming Economics, Politics and Societal Practices, Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Woods, N. (2007), ‘Trends in global economic governance and the emerging accountability gap’ in (Eds.) P. De Senarclens and A. Kazancigil, Regulating Globalization: Critical Approaches to Global Governance, Tokyo: United Nations University (pp.93-117)


Lecture 6: Reading Week

Students are invited to consult or arrange a tutorial to discuss any reading from the module. Also, students may want to seek guidance on their critical reading exercise. Further details will be given prior to this week.


Lecture 7: Political Participation and Consumer Activism/Citizenship (Maria Touri)

We continue with the concept of culture and in this lecture we critically engage with the interplay of global culture and the politics of consumption.  We will question theories of imperialism and homogenization and we will also discuss ways in which practices of cultural consumption can be conducive to different types of political participation and activism.


Key Reading


Bennett, W.L. (2003), ‘Lifestyle Politics and Citizen-Consumers’, in Corner, J. and Pels, D. (eds.), Media and the restyling of politics: consumerism, celebrity, cynicism, London: SAGE

Hilton, M. (2009), Prosperity for all consumer activism in an era of globalization, Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Michelletti, M. and Stolle, D. (2012) Sustainable Citizenship and the New Politics of Consumption, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 644, Communication, Consumers, and Citizens: Revisiting the Politics of Consumption, pp. 88-120

Murray, W. E. and Overton, J. (2014), Geographies of Globalization, London: Routledge (Chapter 6)

Stolle, D. and Micheletti, M. (2015) Political Consumerism: Global Responsibility in Action, Cambridge University Press (Chapters 1 and 2)


Supplementary Reading

Bartolovich, C. (2003) ‘Post-imperialism or new imperialism? The eleventh September of George Bush fortress US and the global politics of consumption’, Interventions, 5(20):177-198.

Daunton, M. and Hilton, M. (2001), The politics of consumption: material culture and citizenship in Europe and America, Oxford: Berg

Humphery, K. (2010) Excess: Anti-Consumerism in the West, Cambridge: Polity

Hudson, I. and Hudson, M. (2003) ‘Removing the Veil? Commodity Fetishism, Fair Trade and the Environment’, Organization and Environment, 16(4): 413-430

Klein, N. (2010) No space, no choice, no jobs, no logo, London: Fourth Estate

Lekakis, E. (2013), Coffee activism and the politics of fair trade and ethical consumption in the global north: political consumerism and cultural citizenship, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Littler, J. (2009), Radical Consumption: Shopping for Change in Contemporary Culture, Berkshire: Open University

Micheletti, M. (2003) Political Virtue and Shopping: individuals, consumerism, and collective action, New York: Palgrave McMillan

Miller, T. (2007) Cultural Citizenship: Cosmopolitanism, Consumerism, and Television in a Neoliberal Age, Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press

Mukherjee, R. and Banet-Weiser, S. (2012) Commodity Activism: Cultural Resistance in Neoliberal Times, New York, NY, USA: NYU Press (Introduction)

Nelson, M.R., McLeod, D.M., Friedland, L. and Shah, D.V. (2007) ‘The politics of Consumption/The consumption of politics’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 611 (1):6-15.

Odih, P. (2010) Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times, GB: Ashgate

Ritzer G. (2000), The McDonaldization of Society, New Century Edition. Thousand Oaks CA: Pine Forge Press.

Ritzer, G. and Dean, P. (2014), Globalization: A Basic Text, Hoboken: Wiley (Chapter 8)

Seabrook, J. (2004), Consuming Cultures: Globalization and Local Lives, London: SAGE

Sassatelli, R., Davolio, F. (2010) ‘Consumption, pleasure and politics: Slow food and the politico-aesthetic problematization of food’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 10 (2):202-232.

Sassatelli, R. (2007) Consumer culture: history, theory and politics, London: SAGE

Spaargaren, G. and Oosterveer, P. (2010), Citizen-Consumers as Agents of Change in Globalizing Modernity: The Case of Sustainable Consumption, Sustainability, 2(7), pp.1887-1908

Street, J. (1997), Politics and Popular Culture, Cambridge: Polity Press

Van Ham, P. (2010), Social Power in International Politics, New York; London: Routledge (Chapter 3)

Ward, J. and deVreese, C. (2011), ‘Political consumerism, young citizens and the Internet’, Media, Culture and Society, 33 (3): 399-413

de Zúñiga, H. G., Copeland, L., Bimber, B. (2014), ‘Political consumerism: Civic engagement and the social media connection’, New Media & Society, 16(3):488-506




Lecture 8: The Politics of Slow Fashion

The 2013 collapse of Rana Plaza – a garment manufacturing building in Bangladesh – and the deaths of 1,134 factory workers drew global popular attention to the potentially fatal consequences of the global ‘fast fashion’ industry. One response from Western consumers, and a reaction to the globalized, homogenized fashion industry, has been the engagement in new alternative consumption movements like ‘Slow Fashion’. An example of slow fashion may be found in the renewed interest in home dressmaking in Western countries. This class will discuss the politics of slow fashion, exploring how such a movement may enable consumers to engage in ethical consumption practices, and the role that digital media play in this kind of movements.


Key Reading

Jung S. & Jin B., (2014), ‘A theoretical investigation of slow fashion: sustainable future of the apparel industry’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(5): 510–519.

Fletcher K., (2010) ‘Slow Fashion: An Invitation for Systems Change’, Fashion Practice The Journal of Design Creative Process & the Fashion Industry, 2(2): 259–266

Štefko, R. and Steffek, V. (2018) Key Issues in Slow Fashion: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives, Sustainability 10, 2270; doi:10.3390/su10072270

Supplementary Reading

Bain, J. (2016), “Darn right I’m a feminist…sew what?’ The Politics of Contemporary Home Dressmaking: Sewing, Slow Fashion and Feminism”. Women’s Studies International Forum, 54, pp. 57-66.

Barnes L. & Lea-Greenwood G., (2013), ‘Fast fashion: a second special issue’, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 17(2).

Campbell C., (2005), ‘The Craft Consumer: Culture, craft and consumption in a postmodern society’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 5(1): 23–42

Cline, E.L. (2013) Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion, New York, N.Y.: Portfolio/Penguin

Gabrielli V., Baghi I. & Codeluppo V., (2013) ‘Consumption practices of fast fashion products: a consumer‐based approach’, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 17(2): 206–224

Gwilt, A., (2010), Shaping sustainable fashion, London: Earthscan.

Hall (2018) Digital Kimono: Fast Fashion, Slow Fashion?, Fashion Theory, 22 (3): 283-307, DOI: 10.1080/1362704X.2017.1319175

Hammond, C. (2018), Stitching Time: Artisanal Collaboration and Slow Fashion in Post-disaster Haiti, Fashion Theory, DOI: 10.1080/1362704X.2018.1441001

Joy A. et al., (2012), ‘Fast Fashion, Sustainability, and the Ethical Appeal of Luxury Brands’, Fashion Theory, 16(3): 273–296.

Available at:

Pookulangara S. & Shephard A., (2013), ‘Slow fashion movement: Understanding consumer perceptions—An exploratory study’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2): 200–206

Zarley Watson M. & Yan R.-N., (2013), ‘An exploratory study of the decision processes of fast versus slow fashion consumers’, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 17(2)



Lecture 9: Globalisation, religion and technology? The case of digital religion and ‘audience-believers’. (Anna Claydon/Jo Whitehouse-Hart)


One of the most significant manifestations of globalisation is the spread of religion. Indeed, one can say that it is one of the oldest forms of globalisation. However, the impact of technology on religion has been one of diversifying audiences and, seemingly, democratising discourses around faith. As such, the concept of a global audience, actuated through digital technologies, is pertinent to examining how different faiths have impact and influence. This session will take the case study of Christian believers to explore the complexities of researching ‘audiences’ psychosocially, in a digital context and on the global stage. The lecture will introduce a variety of perspectives including critical discourse theory, uses and gratifications, sociological and psychoanalysis to understand what kinds of media ‘audience-believers’ (Claydon & Whitehouse-Hart 2018) are using and how they use and interact with this media to support their faith. The lecture will focus on the use of ‘Christian self-help texts’ and introduce the idea of the ‘Digital Televangelist’ (Claydon and Whitehouse-Hart 2018) to critically explore this economically and globally significant media industry and its relationship with its ‘audience(s)’. The ideas introduced in this session can then be used by students to explore audience-believers’ media use across a range of other religions and within a variety of globalised media contexts.

Key reading:

Claydon E. A., & Whitehouse-Hart, J. (2018) ‘Overcoming’ the ‘Battlefield of the Mind’: A Psycho-linguistic Examination of the Discourse of Digital-Televangelists Self-Help Texts’.Language and Psychoanalysis 2018, 7 (2) 2-28 Campbell, H. & Pastina, A. C. (2010) ‘How the I-Phone became divine: new media, religion and the intertextual circulation of meaning’ New Media and Society 12 (7) 1191-1207

Recommended Reading:

Campbell, H. (2012). Digital religion: Understanding religious practice in new media. London, Routledge

Morgan, D. (2013) ‘Religion and The Media: A Critical Review of Recent Developments’ Critical Research on Religion 1 (3) 347-356

Meyer, B. (2008). Religious Sensations: Why Media, Aesthetics and Power Matter in the Study of Contemporary Religion. New York: Fordham University Press.

Lundby, K. (2011) ‘Patterns of belonging in online/offline interfaces of religion’. Information Communication and Society vol 14 no 8 1219-1235

Further Reading

Rippen, A. (2013) ‘The Qur’ān on the Internet: Implications and Future Possibilities’ in Hoffman, T & Larsson ,G. Eds. Muslims and the New Information and Communication TechnologiesNotes from an Emerging and Infinite Field Switzerland, Springer Nature.

Thomaselli, K.G and Shepperson, A (2002) Speaking in Tongues and Writing in Vision: Orality and Literacy in Televangelistic Communications’. In Hoover, S.M and Schofield Clark, L eds. .Practicing Religion in the Age of the Media. 345-361.New York: Columbia University Press.

Lofton, K. (2011) ‘Religion and the American Celebrity’ Social Compass 58(3) 2011 346-352

Cheong, P. H. , Fischer-Neilsen, P., Gelfgren, S., & Ess, C. Eds. Digital Religion, Social Media and Culture: Perspectives, Practices and Futures New York Peter Lang.

Mooney. A. (2010) ‘Has God Gone Global? Religion Language and Globalization’ in The Handbook of Language and Globalization Ed by Coupland, N,

Frederick. M. A. (2016). American religion gone global. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Pres

Parker, S.(2008) ‘Winnicott’s Object Relations Theory and the Work of the Holy Spirit’ Journal of Psychology and Theology Vol 36 no.4 285-293

Black, D. (2006) Psychoanalysis and Religion in the 21st Century: competitors or collaborators? New York Routledge.

Webb, M, Stetz, K. & Hedden, K. (2008) ‘Representations of mental illness in Christian self-help bestsellers’ .Mental Health, Religion and Culture Vol 11 no 7. 697-617

Bryan, C and Albakry, M. (2015) ‘A little bit transparent with one another: Constructing vulnerability in the evangelical discourse of women preachers’ . Culture and Religion 16:4 392-311

Ytre-Arne, B. (2011) ‘I want to hold it in my hands: readers’ experiences of the phenomenological differences between women’s print magazines online and in print’/ Media Culture Society 33(3) 467-477

Swanson, D (2008) ‘Digitally Enhanced or Dumbed Down? Evangelists use of the internet’ Digital commons @calpoly Moebius 33


Lecture 10: Diaspora, transnational communities and new media (Tracy Simmons)

This lecture will consider how transnational networks of communication and contact are central to the lives,

identity and practices of migrant and diasporic groups. With reference to concrete case studies, we will explore

scholarly debates on the ways in which diasporic and migrant communities are created and imagined and

examine the role of ICTs in these processes.


Key reading:

Dayan, D (1998), ‘Particularistic Media and diasporic communications’ in T. Liebes and J. Curran, (eds.) Media,

Ritual and Identity (London: Routledge).

Rinnawi K. (2012) ‘Instant nationalism’ and the ‘cyber Mufti’: the Arab Diaspora in Europe and the transnational

media’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38 (9):1451‐1467

Seto, WaiLing and Martin, F.  (2019) Transmigrant media: Mediating place, mobility, and subjectivity, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 22(4) 577–594.


Further reading:

Bauböck, R., and Faist, T. (2010) (eds.) Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods.

(Amsterdam, NLD: Amsterdam University Press).

Cohen, R. (2008) Global Diasporas: An Introduction (2nd Edition) (Florence, KY, USA: Routledge).

Cunningham, S. and Sinclair, J. (2000) (eds) Floating Lives, the Media and Asian Diasporas. (Queensland:

Queensland University Press).

Georgiou, M. (2005), ‘Diasporic Media Across Europe: Multicultural Societies and the Universalism–Particularism

Continuum’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31 (3): 481‐498.

Karim, Karim H. (2003), The Media of Diaspora: Mapping the Globe (London: Routledge).

Jones, S.G. (1998) Cybersociety 2.0 (London: Sage). (See chapters 1, 2 and 7)

Mitra, A. (2005) ‘Creating immigrant identities in cybernetic space: examples from a non‐resident Indian

website’ Media Culture and Society, 27(3):371‐390.

Munt, S. (2001) (ed.) Technospaces, Inside the New Media (London; New York: Continuum). (See chapter 12)

Naficy, H. (1999) (ed.) Home, Exile, Homeland (London: Routledge).

Siapera, E. (2005) ‘Minority Activism on the Web: Between Deliberative Democracy and Multiculturalism’

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(3) 4999‐519.

Siapera, E. (2006) ‘Multiculturalism online. The Internet and the dilemmas of multicultural politics’ European

Journal of Cultural Studies, 9(1)5‐24.

Sreberny, A. (2000) ‘Media and Diasporic Consciousness: An Exploration Among Iranians in London’, in S. Cottle,

(ed) Ethnic Minorities and the Media: Changing Cultural Boundaries (Buckingham: Open University Press)

Trandafoiu, R. (2013) Diaspora Online: Identity Politics and Romanian Migrants (New York, NY: Berghahn Books).


Lecture 11: Globalization, technology and the self (Tracy Simmons)

This lecture explores conceptualisations of identity in the context of globalization and new media. In particular, it explores the presentation of the self, or multiple selves in the online environment.

Key reading:

Giddens, A. (1992) The Transformation of Intimacy Cambridge: Polity (chapters 1 and 2)

Gauntlett, D. and Horsley, R. (2004) Web. Studies 2nd edition London: Arnold. (See part II chapter 4)

Monteiro, S. (2020) ‘Welcome to selfiestan’: identity and the networked gaze in Indian mobile media, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 42(1) 93–108

Further reading:

Ang, I. (2001) On not speaking Chinese London: Routledge

Barney, D. (2004) The Network Society. Cambridge: Polity. (See chapter 5)

Bauman Z (1996) From pilgrim to tourist: Or a short history of identity. In: Hall S and du Gay P (eds) Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage, pp.18–36.

Craib,I.(1998)  Experiencing Identity London: Sage.

Elias, N. (1987) Involvement and Detachment Oxford: Basil Blackwell

Fisher, E. and Mehozay, Y. (2019) How algorithms see their audience: media epistemes and the changing conception of the individual, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 41(8) 1176–1191.

Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity Cambridge: Polity. (See chapter 4)

Hall, S. (1996) ‘Who needs ‘Identity’ and Z. Baumann, ‘From Pilgrim to Tourist – or a short history of Identity’ in S.Hall and P. du Gay, (eds). Questions of Cultural Identity London: Sage.

Hollinger, D. (1995) Post-Ethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism London: MIT Press

Iyer, P. (2001) The Global Soul. London: Penguin

Mathews G (2000) Global Culture/Individual Identity: Searching for Home in the Cultural Supermarket. London: Routledge.

Papacharissi, Z. (2010) A Networked Self. New York: Routledge

Puttnam, R. (2001) Bowling Alone London: Simon and Schuster

Román-Velásquez, P. & Negus, K. (2000). Globalization and cultural identities. In Curran, J. & Gurevitch, M. (Eds.). Mass media and society. 3rd ed., London: Arnold.

Rose, N. (1998) Inventing Ourselves Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Slevin, J (2000) The Internet and Society Oxford: Polity (See chapter 6)

Sreberny, A. (2002) ‘Globalization and Me’ in J.M. Chan, and B.T. McIntyre, In Search of Boundaries London: Ablex