GUIDANCE ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE ESSAY AND YOUR ESSAY DRAFT
Multimodal Communication Module
Please note that the following structure is only offered as guidance and there is no expectation to fully adhere to it. It elaborates further on the initial guidance included in the document ‘Assignment’ under the Assessment tab on Moodle. That document indicates that your essay should have the following basic structure: Introduction, Literature Review, Method, Presentation and Analysis of Data, Discussion and Conclusion.
This should include the essay question, name the content of the video and its genre, name the theoretical perspective and the key analytical categories you will use from multimodality, refer to the aims and objectives of this study ( e.g. I am asking this question, using this theoretical framework in order to ….). Please also be explicit about your argument and offer your readers good navigational tools through adequate signposting.
2. Contextual information about the video
This could be a paragraph or two in which you can present some details about the video and its genre along with some contextual information which can be established if you attend to the relevant preliminary questions in the Guidance Notes for each video. You may also choose to present this contextual information just before the analysis.
3. Literature review
This is expected to be a brief account of other relevant research precedents you will identify. Who else has asked similar questions of similar data through similar theoretical perspectives? What analytical categories have they used in their approach to video analysis? You can also refer to other scholars you have analysed videos in ways that are helpful for the question you are asking, irrespectively of whether their work uses a similar theoretical framework. You may also briefly want to refer to those other disciplinary fields that have a claim on this kind of data (e.g. advertising, media studies, marketing, cultural studies etc.) and the questions they are asking, without expanding on this. In this section you need to demonstrate that you have a good overview of the field and current debates around transcription of multimodal video data in research. Remember that this very brief review is written from the point of view of your chosen perspective to multimodality (which you have already named in the introduction)
4. Theoretical approach to multimodality adopted
This should be a brief outline of the particular ‘take’ on multimodality that you are adopting to address your essay question (e.g. social semiotics, SFL, CA). It should discuss the key aspects/ tenets of this theoretical framework explaining how this is the most apt framework for the question asked You should also make reference to key concepts that will inform the analysis and will constitute your analytical categories in the analysis section. The following can be examples of analytical categories: modes [writing, image, sound, layout, music, gesture etc.], resources of modes [view point, proximity, salience, pitch, angle etc.), the four principles of recontextualization [framing, selection, arrangement, foregrounding], or the three metafunctions applied across modes [ideational, interpersonal, textual]
5. Method for framing aspects of this video/ Methods for analysis
This section is all about the way you intending to ‘operationalize’ multimodality in the particular case of your chosen video. It is closely linked to the second point above regarding the presentation of the key analytical categories. Here, you will need to be even more specific about how these concepts are relevant and useful in making sense of your data. Sections 4 and 5 can partly overlap with each other. Please note that in the initial guidance sections 4 and 5 are coming under the section titled ‘Method’. How do your chosen analytical categories shape the way you have designed your multimodal transcript? Why are these the most appropriate for the question you are asking? Why have you not attended to other concepts as the basis for your analysis?
What are you trying to make visible by using these categories?
6. Presentation and Analysis of data
This is the most important section of the essay in which you demonstrate that you have understood how to ‘operationalize’ your approach to multimodality. How do you see your data through the lens of multimodality and the specific ‘filters’ of your chosen analytical categories?
Remember that your data comprise only those parts of the video you have framed as such. Why have you framed these excerpts as your data? What has been the rationale for the choices you have made?
You need to make decisions about the best way to present the data, so that you substantiate your argument (key point you are making), while you are applying the analytical categories.
Consider the role of the multimodal transcript in this section? What does it do? (e.g. visualize your argument, show the orchestration of modes). What is the significance behind each representational choice you have made in this? (e.g. which mode/ modal resource is presented first, which ones are not represented and why?)
Is the transcript well integrated within your analytical account/ narrative? Is there coherence and cohesion? Any subsections you will include within the analysis section cannot start with the transcript inserted there, but with some text explaining your point.
How are the points you are making in the analysis through the text and the transcript help you answer your essay question and substantiate your argument? Irrespectively of your essay question, all of you should have some ancillary questions at the back of your mind when you do the analysis. What do the modes do? How are they used in this design? How do they orchestrate with each other? What is the effect of the semiotic choices made?
To ensure that there is consistency between sections 4, 5 and 6, you should also make sure that you analysis is also asking and answering questions to do with your chosen approach to multimodality (e.g. what are the metafunctions of each mode/ OR what aspect of the world is ‘framed’ here? What resources have been selected (e.g. modes and modal resources)? How have the various modes and their resources been arranged and what has been foreground?
You may choose to include the transcript in an Appendix. However, please note that your analysis should be able to make sense without one needing to turn to the appendix for reference.
In this section you should bring together all your findings from the analysis and attempt a synthesis. Try to address the question: ‘So what?’
Explain clearly how you have addressed your essay question and how you have substantiated your argument. Draw links with the theory as well as the literature you have reviewed. Discuss your findings in the light of that literature and position your approach within scholarly work. No new literature should be introduced here.
Any contextual information about the data (previously presented) can be brought in, to support further any interpretations you are making. How does the information about these videos which is coming from other sources potentially correlate with your findings?
This can be a summary of what you have done in this essay, having what you wrote in the introduction as your point of reference. You may want to reflect further on the gains and losses from the approach you attempted (if you have not done so in the discussion). You can also consider the implications of your findings for the field of study ( multimodal social semiotics, discourse analysis, Conversation analysis), or the area of social life and practices this video relates to (museums, schools / instructional, promotional videos). How can this way of seeing the world contribute to the design of such videos?
Your essay draft will be a two-page submission in one Word document comprising a text of up to 700 words and a sample of the multimodal transcript you have designed.
Please use the guidance on essay structure and write short responses for each of the items numbered 1-8.
Your essay draft should be uploaded in the relevant section on Moodle.
Please use this guidance document along with the ‘Guided Marking Sheet’ as points of reference when reading the sample essays. However, please remember that the sample essays included on Moodle are not templates to be replicated, but just examples of how students have previously responded to this task. You should remember that the choice of data, your question and approach to multimodality will dictate a structure that is context specific and most apt for serving your argument.
For each of the videos additional guidance documents have been provided. Please refer to these for specific guidance with regards to each video.
Most of all, enjoy the process!
Deadline for the submission of the essay draft:
Friday 9th April 10 PM
Videos for analysis
- British Airways Onboard safety video:
- Video created by UCL students as part of the UCL Global Citizenship programme for the NGO ‘Resolution Possible’
- An instance of classroom interaction (guided reading session)
- Naturally occurringeveryday interaction (mother and daughter talk in a car) https://vimeo.com/390341183 )
Password required to access the video excerpt: communication
- An educational video on Covid-19 by a company called ‘Neural Academy
- The British Museum audio guide promo
|COMMENTS AND EVIDENCE||MARK|
|Grasp of field of study||
|Level of critical insight and grasp of the topic|
|Extend and critical review of the literature|
|Creativity and independence of thought
|Understanding and evaluation of research and methodologies
|Critical evaluation of research and methodologies
|Understanding how research creates and interprets knowledge and how these apply to the current research|
|Critical inferring from data
|Structure Communication and Presentation||
|Clarity, focus and cogency
- Further reflections on the assessment criteria:
|The overall structure of the essay is clear, logical and well- balanced
|The text communicates clearly the key question/ hypothesis explored, or the argument put forward
|The literature review section relates directly to similar research precedents and offers a critical evaluation of the literature on such data explored from similar multimodal perspectives
|The design of the multimodal transcript is apt for the question asked and argument made||Yes||No||Partly|
|The essay evidences critical engagement with the literature.||Yes||No||Partly|
|The interpretative framework and the specific analytical concepts used are clearly presented and defined
|The presentation of the theoretical concepts from multimodality is supported by references to the literature or quotes
|The analysis of the data directly relates to the analytical concepts used in the transcript and the theory section
|A clear rationale is provided regarding the selection of specific excerpts from the video
|An explanation is provided with regards to the choice of analytical categories that feature in the multimodal transcript
|The analysis moves beyond description (using clear analytical categories) into interpretation
|The essay demonstrates awareness of the aptness of specific analytical and theoretical concepts featured for best addressing the research question.
|The excerpts from the multimodal transcript are well integrated in the analysis offering a coherent account||Yes||No||Partly|
|The title accurately reflects the content and the theoretical approach adopted
|There is coherence and cohesion across the various sections (good signposting and navigational tools for the reader)
|The multimodal transcript and its discussion demonstrate awareness of issues and approaches in the field of transcription
|The essay is referenced appropriately and in a consistent style
|The text communicates meanings clearly and the writing style is fluent
|The conclusions drawn answer the question asked/ or clearly support the argument
|The bibliography is accurately and consistently formatted, ideally using a reference management system (e.g. Endnote)
- Identify elements of good practice in both essays:
- Identify areas for improvement:
- Questions arising for your own essay writing approach:
Part A: Product design and master budget: Pushing your boundary
Purpose of this assignment: To assess student’s ability to work independently to develop standard costs for a product and prepare master budget for the product.
Graduate Capabilities Assessed: Autonomy and independence, critical thinking, inquiry/research, and disciplinary specific knowledge
Create a plan and budget for one product or service that you want to offer to the market. You can decide on the type of business (service, manufacturing or trading), type of product or service, the targeted market for your product or service, the time and social context that you want to offer the product.
Feel free to imagine. Do market research and complete the tasks described in part B.
Part B: Task requirements
|Requirements||Marks allocated||Explanation||Hints to get high marks|
|1||Select and design product or service of your choice, and discuss the vision, purpose, and goal of your product/service.||20||1) Propose a product/service with description of setting. Explain why the product/service is chosen using market
research (social, political, legal, environmental contexts).
2) Discuss the vision, purposes, and goal of the business. Explain the linkage between the decision with the vision, purpose and goals of the business. You need to provide clear evidence of market research to arrive at the decision.
Evidence of market research needs to be referenced using appropriate referencing style.
The more research you do to arrive at your selection of product/service, and the more critical thinking you put in to evaluate the suitability of the product/service to society, as well as your business vision, purpose and goals, you will achieve greater marks.
Please refer to the marking rubrics, the
A (80-100%) column
|2||Estimate standard production costs including direct costs and overhead costs for your product or service (Note: you need to arrive at total standard cost per unit of product/service)||30
(20 marks for explanation of direct costs and overhead costs, 10 marks for estimation of standard costs on Excel)
|1) Describe the production process and design of the product/service.
2) Develop standard direct material and labour costs, standard fixed and variable overhead costs, and total standard costs on Excel.
3) Provide a detailed explanation of the process of estimation, any assumptions used, and where you get the cost information from (data sources), and critically evaluate why you think the data is reliable.
The key to get high marks in this part is to clearly understand your product/service, how it is produced or delivered.
Estimation of costs need to have critical evaluation of the reliability of the information you obtained.
Market research on costs and product design is a must to get high marks. Please refer to the marking rubrics, the
A (80-100%) column
|4) All data sources need to be properly referenced in-text and in the reference list.
5) Estimation of standard costs is to be done in Excel, in the same file with the preparation of master budget. This file is to be submitted as the second part of the assignment.
|Workshop 3 will equip you with the Excel skill for standard costs development.|
|3||Prepare a master budget for the first month after the product is offered to the market (including all components of a master budget)||40 (10 marks for explanation of various figures in master budget, 30 marks for the master budget preparation on
|1) You are required to develop a master budget for your product/service
for the first 1 month of offering it to the market. The master budget must include ALL components relevant to your chosen business. Sales estimation needs to be explained using market research (why and how you arrive at the sales estimation).
2) All budgets are to be presented in professional Excel format. All data sources need to be properly referenced. 3) The whole master in Excel is to be submitted as the second part of the assignment.
The key point here is estimation of sales because it determines the whole budget. The more market research and critical evaluation of different sources of data you use for sales estimation, and other costs estimation, the better the mark will be.
Please refer to the marking rubrics, the
A (80-100%) column
Watch the tutorial video 6.24 carefully on the process of using Excel for master budget.
|4||Reflection on the knowledge and skills you developed from this assignment||10||You need to reflect on the process of doing this assignment. What were the difficulties that you faced during the assignment, how did you overcome the difficulties, and what were the lessons you learned after doing the assignment?||The deeper and more critical you reflect on your personal experience of preparing the budget, the better the mark will be. It is the best if you can relate your personal experience of doing this budget with what you learn in class, in your daily life, and compare with other experiences that you know through interaction, reading, watching, etc.…
Please refer to the marking rubrics, the
A (80-100%) column
Part C: Detail Rubrics
Please see below marking rubric indicating assessment criteria and marks.
|Criteria||Mark||A (80-100%)||B (70-79%)||C (60-69%)||D (50-59%)||N (0-49%)|
|Develop new product/s ervice||20||Demonstrates evidence of in-depth, intensive market research to examine different factors including needs of customers, current trend in social, political, legal and environmental contexts, via multiple sources. The proposed product/service is innovative, and the purpose of the product/service is highly appropriate for the context. The business demonstrates critical analysis of its potential social impact. The business’s vision and goals are clearly identified, closely linked to each other, and achievable within the timeframe.||Demonstrate reasonable market research (including some but not all of these areas: needs of customers, current trend in social, political, legal and environmental contexts) using a few sources. The purpose of the proposed product/service is appropriate for the market and the context. The business demonstrates some social responsibilities for the society.
Demonstrate some critical evaluation of the potential social impact of the product. The vision and goals of the business are clearly identified and linked to each other.
|Demonstrates some market research (including some but not all of these areas: needs of customers, current trend in social, political, legal and environmental contexts) using at least one source. The purpose of the proposed product/service is appropriate for the market and the context. The business demonstrates intention for social responsibilities but does not show adequate critical analysis of the potential social impact of the product/service. The vision of the business is clear. Goals are clearly identified but not closely linked to vision.||Demonstrates limited market research, discuss but not critically evaluate needs of customers, current trend in social, political, legal and environmental contexts. The purpose of the proposed product/service is appropriate for the market and the context. The business demonstrates little consideration for social responsibilities. The vision and goals of the business are stated but not very clear and weak connection to each other.||Demonstrates very little or no evidence of market research. Little or no critical evaluation of different factors influencing the product selection. The purpose of the proposed
product/service is not quite appropriate for the market and the context. The business demonstrates no or
little responsibilities for the society. The vision and goals of the are not clearly identified.
|Develop standard costs||30 (10 mark for excel work on||Shows excellent understanding of the product through clear and||Shows good understanding through a clear description of the production||Shows reasonable understanding of the production process||Shows little understanding of the production process with||Shows no
understanding of the production process
|standard cost estimation)||detailed description of the production processes and materials involved. The cost estimation includes highlevel of detail explanation of the process of cost estimation and demonstrates critical evaluation of reliability of the sources. The standard costs are strongly aligned with the purpose statement. Excellent demonstration of excel skill in developing standard cost. (formatting, cell references, uses of
|processes and materials involved. The cost estimation includes detail explanation of the process of cost estimation and demonstrates some
evaluation of reliability of the sources. The standard
costs show some alignment with the purpose statement. Excellent demonstration of excel skill in developing standard cost.
|through a brief explanation of the product/services. Costs are estimated with some explanation of the process of estimation but little critical evaluation of the reliability of the sources. Standard costs show little alignment to the purpose statement. Very good demonstration of excel skill in developing standard cost.||very little explanation of the product/services. Costs are estimated with limited explanation of the process of estimation. There is no critical evaluation of the reliability of the sources. Standard costs show little to no alignment to the purpose statement. The standard costs are processed properly using Excel.||through the absence of explanation of the product/services production process. Costs are estimated with no explanation of how the figures are arrived. There is no critical evaluation of the reliability of the sources. Standard costs show no alignment to the purpose statement. Little or no demonstration of
excel skill in
developing standard cost.
|Develop master budget||40 (10 for explanation and 30 for excel budget)||The master budget is clearly and strongly linked to the identified goals. All necessary components of the master budget relevant to the chosen business type are completed in an understandable manner and high level of professional presentation. Sales estimation is clearly justified using extensive market research. All assumptions used in developing the master budget are critically discussed using market research. The excel budgets||The master budget is linked to the identified goals. All necessary components of master budget relevant to the chosen business type are completed with professional presentation. Sales estimation is stated with some explanation using limited market research as to how and why the figure is achieved. Some assumptions made in developing the budget are evaluated with limited market research. The excel||The budget is weakly linked to the stated goals. All necessary components of master budget relevant to the chosen business type are completed with understandable and neat format. Sales estimation is included with some justification from market research. Some assumptions made in developing the budget are stated but not evaluated. The excel budgets are properly done with cell references and formula||The budget is not linked
to the stated goals. All components of the budgets are completed in an understandable but not professional and neat format. Sales are stated but no discussion further as to why the sales figures are estimated. Few or no assumption are stated or discussed. The excel budgets are reasonably done with cell references and formula used, clear and understandable format
|The budget is prepared but does not include all necessary components relevant to the chosen business type. There is no link between the budget and identified goals. Sales are stated but no explanation. Little or no evidence of market research being done to arrive at the sales. The excel budgets are not properly done with cell references and formula used, format|
|are excellently done with cell references and formula used, and professional formatted.
|budgets are well done with cell references and formula used, very good and easy to understand format.
|used, clear and easy to
|is unclear and not understandable.|
|Reflection||10||Demonstrates an excellent ability to deeply and critically reflect on personal experience of preparing a budget through a detailed discussion of challenges encountered during the process, how the challenges were overcome, and the lessons learnt. The reflection is clearly authentic through its connection with the way the assignment is done.||Demonstrates a good
ability to critically reflect on personal experience of preparing a budget by clearly pointing out some challenges encountered during the process, how the challenges were overcome, and the lessons learnt.
|Demonstrates reasonable ability to reflect on personal experience of preparing a budget through discussing some experiences during the process of doing the assignment. Challenges, solutions and lessons learnt are not clear.||Demonstrates weak
ability to reflect on personal experience of preparing a budget. Challenges, solutions and lessons learnt are not well articulated and seem not reflected in the way the assignment is done.
|Shows very weak
ability to reflect on personal experience of preparing a budget. Reflection is very general and there is no reflection on challenges faced, how challenges have been overcome and what lessons have been learnt.
Part D: Submission Guidelines
What to submit:
- TWO files: Report in PDF (1000 words limit), and Excel file (where you show all the works of estimating standard costs and master budget)
- In the Report, you still need to include all tables of standard costs, and budgets that you have prepared in the Excel. So, you have to prepare them in Excel first, then export them into word file, then convert the word file into PDF. Then you submit both the PDF file and the Excel file as two parts of the assignment. The Excel work accounts for 40 marks of this assignment, and the report accounts for 60 marks of the assignment.
Minimum Format requirement:
- Word limit: 1000 words excluding references
- Cover page must have your student name, student ID, subject code and name, assignment title, submission date, subject coordinator name.
- Design of the cover page: any design you want (feel free to be creative in the way you present information).
- All budgets are prepared in table format, using Excel, as illustrated in the workshop activities. This is to help you to improve your ability of using Excel. You should prepare the budget on Excel then export the tables to your word document. The Excel works and tables do NOT count towards the word limit.
- Explanation: can be delivered in Words or Images. If it is in Words, use Arial, 12pt, 1.5 spacing. You are encouraged to use more images, charts or any form of visualisation to convey your contents. If you use images, make sure their meanings are clear.
- All pages need to be numbered.
- All sections should have appropriate headings.
- Reference: APA 6th if you use in-text citing. Note: any idea or data which do not come from you needs to be referenced both in-text and in the reference list.
- Final report submission must be in PDF format. Workout of standard costs and master budget is in Excel file.
When to submit:
- Due date: 11pm Sunday 11th April 2021
- Method of submission: via Turnitin link under LMS\Assessments\Assignment 1_part 1 and 2
- Extension and late submission: please refer to the Extension, Late Submission and Penalties section in the Subject Learning Guide.
- Academic Integrity: please refer to Academic Integrity section in the Subject Learning Guide
- Page 9