Nursing

Instructions: Response must be at least 350 words written in current APA format with at least two academic references cited. References must be within the last five years. Respond by extending, correcting/refuting, or adding additional nuance.

Angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACEIs) inhibitors are common antihypertensive agents which once administered act within the lungs to inhibit conversion of angiotensin I to form angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor within the human body. To decrease blood pressure, production of angiotensin II which is also an aldosterone release stimulator has to be prevented. This also results in the subsequent increase in serum potassium with a decrease in serum sodium and fluid loss. ARBs work to raise the effects caused by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which blocks a patient’s blood pressure (Victor et al., 2018). Calcium-channel blockers inhibit calcium ion movement across cell membranes within the arterial muscle. This causes alteration of the cells leading to blockage of cell contractions. Due to the alteration on the cells, cardiac impulse is relatively slowed as arterial dilation and relaxation is achieved.

Diuretics such as thiazide diuretics are first drug treatment used for high blood pressure. These drug work by widening blood vessels and increasing amount of urine produced which helps get rid of sodium and water released as urine (Schellack & Naicker, 2020). This reduces the fluid going through one’s arteries and veins thus reducing blood pressure. Sympathetic nervous system drugs are used to increase low blood pressure and avert cardiac arrest through blocking breakdown as well as enhancing reuptake of neurotransmitters with stimulation for the release of produced catecholamines. Through this processes, activation of the sympathetic nervous system which modifies its functionality facilitate management of hypertension in patients.

Before patients are prescribed with antihypertensive drugs, healthcare practitioners should ensure patients understand the mechanism of action of the different classes of drugs as they alter the regulatory mechanism. This enhances their knowledge of the possible side effects brought about with their use. When carrying out teaching, patients need to be educated on the essence of adhering to prescribed medication. This is key in enabling them to effectively manage their blood pressure (Prihanti et al.,2020). The health hazards of taking higher doses due to failure to take prior medication should be enhanced. Taking higher doses could lead to very low blood pressure levels which increases the health risks and could result to complications or even death.

Instructions on drug use should be highly sensitized. Creation of effective communication channels and strategies should be sought to encourage patient-provider interactions. This facilitates easier management, monitoring and evaluation of patients even when they are receiving home-care. Through communication, patients can relay health improvement or deterioration and possible effects of drugs. This guides the healthcare provider to assess the patient condition and apply desirable effective interventions based on the progress.  The need to communicate with the healthcare provider before administering new medication should also be addressed. Constant consultation helps avoid drugs that could lead to contraindication and adverse reactions owing to drug-drug interactions (Prihanti et al., 2020). There is also the need for patients to report adverse side effects or reaction experienced with antihypertensive drugs. This facilitates early interventions protecting patients from extended complications and promote better management of hypertension among the patients.