- List 5 risk factors placing people at risk of developing chronic disease
Tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, unhealthy diet
2. Top 3 leading causes of death in the United States
Heart disease, cancer, accidents
3. Describe in your own words how does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease
Being overweight might cause fatty deposits to form in your arteries. A heart attack can occur if the arteries that deliver blood to your heart become damaged and blocked.
4. Explain how hypertension increases the risk of stroke
High blood pressure damages blood vessels, causing them to constrict, burst, or leak. Blood clots can develop in the arteries leading to your brain, obstructing blood flow and potentially causing a stroke if your blood pressure is too high.
5. Share an example of a nutritional strategy to reduce cancer
Antioxidants included in plant-based meals aid to strengthen your immune system and protect you from cancer cells. Fruit-rich diets may reduce the incidence of stomach and lung cancer.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2019, November 19). How high blood pressure can affect your body. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 29, 2021, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/high-blood-pressure/art-20045868.
Obesity. BHF. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2021, from https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/risk-factors/obesity.
The risk factors that place people at risk of developing chronic diseases include tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, obesity and overweight, unhealthy diets, increased blood pressure levels, and increased blood glucose levels (Budreviciute et al., 2020). In the United States, the top three leading causes of death include heart disease, cancer, and accidents that include unintentional injuries (CDC, 2021).
Obesity has been associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in human beings specifically coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF) (Carbone et al., 2019). Obesity contributes to CVD in three ways. Obesity results in changes in cholesterol levels in the body by increasing bad triglyceride and bad cholesterol levels and lowers the good high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol (Carbone et al., 2019). Increase in cholesterol levels lead to the heart being covered by bad cholesterol leading to risk of CVD as the heart cannot function as designed. Secondly, obesity results in high blood pressure levels (Carbone et al., 2019). This means that when an individual is obese, more blood is required in their body to supply and nutrients to parts of their body and this leads to an increase in blood pressure. High blood pressure means that the heart pumps with a lot of force or pressure than required and this result in heart disease. Finally, obesity may result in diabetes which is a risk factor in developing heart disease (Carbone et al., 2019). Diabetes means that an individual has high blood glucose and this can lead to damages in the blood vessels and the nerves that control these blood vessels. Ultimately, the damage in the blood vessels results in cardiovascular disease.
Hypertension is high blood pressure and there is a link between hypertension and stroke. High blood pressure as earlier established puts pressure on all the body vessels including blood vessels that carry blood to the brain (Langmaid, 2021). The strain from the pressure leads to damaging of the blood vessels causing them to become narrower and harder. Thus, the possibility of blockage is high. The blockage results in transient ischaemic attack which is a type of stroke. The blood clots are more often associated with high blood pressure since it results in speeding up of the atherosclerosis process where vessels specifically arteries become clogged and narrow (Langmaid, 2021). The clogging and narrowing is due to fatty plaque. The inability for blood to be pumped through these vessels may result in blood collecting in the heart and this leads to stroke fivefold. Hemorrhagic stroke is also likely since the extra strain from the high blood pressure may lead to bursting of the blood vessels that have been weakening overtime. Most of the blood vessels that burst are found in or around the brain (Langmaid, 2021). The bursting of the vessels results in stroke due to bleeding.
Cancer management and prevention is complex since it originates from different aspects including diet. Thus, nutritional diets to prevent cancer exist. An example of an anti-cancer nutritional diet include consumption of plenty of vegetable sand fruits, more tomatoes, using olive oil in cooking, grapes, green tea, fish as the main protein, and using abundant onions and garlic (Metcalf, 2018). These foods help in prevention and management of cancer as they aid in cell reproduction and prevention of other risk factors.
Budreviciute, A., Damiati, S., Sabir, D. et al. (2020). Management and Prevention Strategies for Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) and Their Risk Factors. Frontiers in Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.574111
Carbone, S., Canada, J. M., Billingsley, H. E., Siddiqui, M. S., Elagizi, A., & Lavie, C. J. (2019). Obesity paradox in cardiovascular disease: where do we stand?. Vascular health and risk management, 15, 89–100. https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S168946
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2021). Leading Causes of Death. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm
Langmaid, S. (2021). How Does High Blood Pressure Raise Stroke Risk? WebMD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension- high-blood-pressure-stroke
Metcalf, E. (2018). The Anti-Cancer Diet: Foods That Prevent Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.everydayhealth.com/cancer-photos/top-foods-to-fight-cancer.aspx
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