Part II – Ethnic Political Mobilization, Ethnic Parties, Ethnic Party Formation, and Ethnic Party Change in Latin America

1.  Bolivia and Peru — Compare and contrast Bolivia and Peru with respect to ethnic parties and ethnic political mobilization. Why have ethnic parties formed in Bolivia but not Peru?  What has been the status of ethnic social movements in Peru?  What has been the relationship between the MAS as a political party in Bolivia and its social movement base?  Analyze and explain the different trajectories in both countries while accounting for their similarities.

2.  Peru and Ecuador — Compare and contrast Peru and Ecuador and their ethnic movements and parties or the lack thereof. Why did Pachakutik do well as a political party initially and then why did it fail to continue as a significant political party?  How are these reasons different from or similar to those in Peru with respect to ethnic political parties and social movements?  In comparing these two countries, what explains why political parties form and persist?

3.  Bolivia and Ecuador — Compare and contrast Bolivia and Ecuador with respect to ethnic parties and democracy. What explains the different trajectories of ethnic political parties in both countries?  Did the parties form for similar reasons?  Did their experiences mirror each other?  How does the relationship between social movements and political parties explain these different trajectories?  What has been the impact of these parties on democracy and democratic institutions in both countries?