Psychological First Aid Test

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Psychological First Aid Online

I have completed all of the required PFA Online course materials on my own to obtain this Certificate of Completion.

Select one:

True

False

Which of the following describes Psychological First Aid?

Select one or more:

 a. An evidence-informed, flexible, modular intervention

b. Typically provided at the end of the recovery period

c. Designed to reduce the initial distress caused by traumatic events

d. Foster short – and long-term adaptive functioning and coping

e. Applies only to adults

What are the basic objectives of Psychological First Aid?

Select one:

a. Keep people from needing social support after a disaster

b. Establish a human connection with people even if it means forcing yourself into their environment

c. Provide survivors with tools and assistance they need to manage their immediate situation

d. Make people share their stories so that they will not have long-term mental health problems

Choose the answer that fits the description:

An individual of any age or gender, with different cultural, religious, or ethnic background who has been affected by a disaster, including disaster responders.

Select one:

a. Survivor

b. PFA Provider

c. Core Actions

d. Disaster

e. Service Delivery Sites and Settings

Choose the answer that fits the description:

Any disaster response worker who provides early assistance to affected children, families, and adults as part of an organized disaster response effort.

Select one:

a. Survivor

b. PFA Provider

c. Core Actions

d. Disaster

e. Service Delivery Sites and Settings

Choose the answer that fits the description:

Eight strategies PFA providers can use flexibly to address the needs of survivors in the immediate aftermath of a disaster.

Select one:

a. Survivor

b. PFA Provider

c. Core Actions

d. Disaster

e. Service Delivery Sites and Settings

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Choose the answer that fits the description:

Any emergency event, including natural disasters (earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes), accidents, terrorist’s attacks, pandemic, school shooting, and arson.

Select one:

a. Survivor

b. PFA Provider

c. Core Actions

d. Disaster

e. Service Delivery Sites and Settings

Choose the answer that fits the description:

General population shelters, schools, special needs shelters, field hospitals and medical triage areas, acute care facilities, hotlines, or public health emergency settings.

Select one:

a. Survivor

b. PFA Provider

c. Core Actions

d. Disaster

e. Service Delivery Sites and Settings

Which of the following are early-intervention principles of Psychological First Aid?

Select one or more:

 a. Safety and calmness

b. Persistence and stabilization

c. Hope and connectedness

d. Self and community efficacy

e. Resistance and Resilience

As a Psychological First Aid provider, it is important to ensure that all survivors receive the same type and level of care.

Select one:

True

False

Read the Scenario and Answer the following two questions:

You arrive at the shelter – a coliseum a few miles from where the hurricane directly hit. It’s late morning and survivors are just starting to arrive at the shelter. They are confused, frightened, and overwhelmed. Members of your PFA response team are giving survivor’s water, food, and blankets.

You observe a number of survivors who need assistance. As a provider, what is the best way to make initial contact with them?

Select one:

a. Explain that others are in need of help too

b. Explain the importance of maintaining faith and hope

c. Observe first and make connections in a non-intrusive, kind, and helpful way

d. Reassure survivors that everything happens for the best

e. Provide them with information on coping

You observe an elderly man that is looking confused and overwhelmed. You want to provide support to him. Which of the following ways would NOT be best to make initial contact with him?

Select one:

a. Speak calmly

b. Give a hug to comfort him

c. Use language that is easy to understand

d. Give the man your full attention

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e. Refrain from looking around or being distracted

You observe a man who is shivering and appears famished. What type of support should you provide to make his environment more comfortable?

Select one:

a. Observe him for a while to see if he stops shivering

b. Tell him where the blankets are located

c. Give him a blanket and show him where the eating area is located

d. Suggest to him that he should find some food

e. Encourage him to walk around to warm himself up

You observe a young man who is visibly upset. You ask if you can help him and he accepts your offer. The man tells you that he has been separated from his wife during the tornado and is really worried about her.

Which of the following types of support can you provide?

Select one or more:

a. Tell him he is not the only person who is missing a loved one

b. Ask him if he and his wife identified a way to touch base if separated

 c. Inform him of current response efforts to locate missing survivors

d. Assure him that his wife is safe

e. Ask him if he would like to go outside to find his wife

A single mother and her male child are sitting alone watching a news report that is showing the damage from the storm. You observe the child getting more nervous and upset.

What steps can you take to protect the child from additional distress?

Select one or more:

a. Encourage the mom to check in with her son to make sure he understands what is happening

b. Force him away from the TV

c. Inform the mom that watching too much TV news coverage may be upsetting her son

d. Tell the mom that routines are helpful to children’s recovery

 e. All of the above are correct

Which of the following is NOT a sign that a survivor may need stabilization?

Select one:

a. Excessive talking

b. Glassy and vacant eyes

c. Strong emotional responses

d. Uncontrollable physical reactions

e. Frantic searching behavior

What stabilizing technique is used to help orient and calm overwhelmed survivors when the initial techniques are unsuccessful?

Select one:

a. Socializing

b. Grounding

c. Yoga

d. Interviewing

e. Prescription medications

When gathering information from survivors, what should the provider do?

Select one:

a. Take a detailed medical history

b. Focus on the immediate needs and concerns

c. Seek detailed information from the survivor about her traumatic experiences to ensure appropriate referral

d. Gather all information at the time of initial contact so interventions can be planned and implemented immediately

e. Ask the survivor to retell what happened during the disaster

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There has been a terrorist attack at a state government building. You arrive at the family assistance center and observe a young couple who are looking distressed.

For this type of situation, what is NOT the best method for identifying their immediate needs and concerns?

Select one:

a. Conduct a standardized assessment interview

b. Use the Survivor Current Needs Form if it is available to help direct you in gathering information about their needs and concerns

c. Gather information about their needs and concerns through natural conversation

d. Ask the couple if they would like to talk with you and ask how you can help

Survivors who are optimistic, confident, and have resources are more likely to have favorable outcomes after a disaster?

Select one:

True

False

Which of the following steps should you NOT follow when providing practical assistance?

Select one:

a. Clarify the needs

b. Identify most immediate needs

c. Discuss personal financial matters

d. Discuss an action plan

e. Act to address the needs

What type of support would NOT be most helpful to a survivor who has become socially isolated?

Select one:

a. Encourage the survivor to take small steps towards interacting with others in a way that is comfortable

b. Help the survivor make a plan for approaching another person

c. Help the survivor consider who might be friendly, approachable, or helpful

d. Remind the survivor that they are not the only ones feeling isolated

e. Reinforce any efforts the survivor has made to gain social support

Choose the answer that fits the supportive response:

“It sounds like you’re saying…..” or “From what you are saying, I can see how you would be….”

Select one:

a. Reflective

b. Clarifying

c. Supportive

d. Empowering

Choose the answer that fits the supportive response:

“Am I right when I say…..?” or “Tell me if I’m wrong, but it sounds like you are saying….”

Select one:

a. Reflective

b. Clarifying

c. Supportive

d. Empowering

Choose the answer that fits the supportive response:

“No wonder you feel…..” or “I’m really sorry this is such a tough time for you.”

Select one:

a. Reflective

b. Clarifying

c. Supportive

d. Empowering

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Choose the answer that fits the supportive response:

“What have you done in the past to make yourself feel better when things get difficult?”

Select one:

a. Reflective

b. Clarifying

c. Supportive

d. Empowering

You identify the needs and concerns of an elderly couple. They are celebrating their 50 wedding anniversary in a couple of days. They are having a party and expecting out-of-town guests to join them. They are feeling anxious and sad about the possibility of the disaster interrupting their celebration.

What can you do to help them feel better?

Select one or more:

 a. Try to increase their appreciation of the years they have spent

b. Try to help them forget about it

 c. Help them develop an alternative plan for the celebration

d. Help them contact their out of town guests

e. Tell the couple your real job is as a party planner and you’ll help them for a fee

You are in a shelter set up for survivors of an earthquake. You are assigned to speak to a family who lost their home. After explaining that individuals react to and cope with stress differently, you explain adaptive coping actions.

Which of the following is NOT true of adaptive coping strategies?

Select one:

a. Help reduce anxiety

b. Lessen distressing reactions

c. Avoid addressing problems

d. Create a sense of empowerment

e. Help family members support one another

When making a referral, summarize your discussion with the survivor for accuracy.

Select one:

True

False

What information should you know when you are ready to connect survivors to available ancillary services?

Select one:

a. Location

b. Office hours

c. Type of services provided and availability

d. Individuals that survivors can talk to

e. All the above

What consideration is particularly important for you to think about before deciding to participate in this disaster response?

Select one:

a. Your Comfort Level

b. Your Health

c. Your Family

d. Your Religion

e. Your Work

You have been working 6 hours straight and are feeling mentally and emotionally exhausted. Which of the following actions is NOT a good choice for taking care of yourself?

Select one:

th

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a. Recognize your limitations and needs

b. Take a break to remove yourself from the commotion

c. Check in with your supervisor or colleague to let them know you need a break

d. Practice a brief relaxation technique

e. Drink caffeine to keep you alert

What can you do to help yourself readjust to life after your relief work?

Select one or more:

 a. Increase experiences that have spiritual or philosophical meaning to you

 b. Be patient with yourself

 c. Let go of what you cannot control

d. Make big life changing decision

 e. Increase leisure activities and exercise

Which of the following is a guideline for delivering Psychological First Aid:

Select one:

a. focus solely on providing psychological care and let others provide practical assistance (for example, food, water, blankets)

b. ask survivors how you can help even if you think you know what they need

c. answer all survivors’ questions even if you are not sure of the answers

d. when communicating with a survivor through a translator, speak slowly and look at the translator so you are sure he/she understands what you are saying

e. quickly get as many details as possible from survivors about their traumatic experiences and losses so that you can help address their PTSD

When delivering Psychological First Aid to a group of survivors, you should:

Select one:

a. focus on the shared needs and concerns of survivors

b. allow the most distressed individual to talk as long as he/she needs to as a way of demonstrating that you care

c. allow people to complain as long as they feel a need to do so

d. discourage questions even if they address issues of concern to most of the survivors

e. avoid telling the group that you do not know the answer to a question so they will not lose confidence in your ability to assist

When preparing to deliver Psychological First Aid, you should be concerned with which of the following:

Select one:

a. the setting in which you will be delivering Psychological First Aid since delivery may change with setting

b. learning about cultural, socioeconomic, and spiritual differences in survivors

c. the needs of your own family even if the needs of survivors seem to be greater

d. your own needs even if the needs of survivors seem to be greater

e. all of the above

When providing information about disaster response activities and services, it is generally appropriate to tell adult survivors:

Select one:

a. what is being done to assist them

b. what is currently known about the unfolding event

c. what to expect next if known

d. what services are available

e. all of the above

In assisting survivors with missing family members, the Psychological First Aid provider should:

Select one:

a. explain the importance of maintaining faith and hope

b. encourage survivors to pray for missing loved ones

c. reassure survivors that everything happens for the best

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d. recognize cultural differences in the grieving process

e. do all of the above

In stabilizing a distressed survivor, the Psychological First Aid provider should generally:

Select one:

a. intervene quickly and let the survivor know the gravity of the situation

b. insist on talking directly to the survivor

c. be calm, quiet, and available

d. tell the survivor to calm down

e. provide detailed information about the disaster so the survivor can put his/her reactions in perspective

Psychological First Aid interventions should be:

Select one:

a. adapted to the specific needs of survivors

b. delivered in a uniform fashion to avoid discrimination

c. designed to meet immediate and long term needs of survivors

d. enacted only after all physical health needs are addressed

e. both a and d above

Social engagement in the aftermath of a disaster should generally be:

Select one:

a. discouraged

b. discouraged among individuals who are obsessing about the disaster

c. discouraged among children but encouraged among adults

d. encouraged among children only if their parents are missing

e. encouraged when individuals are coping adequately

In gathering information from disaster survivors, the Psychological First Aid provider should:

Select one:

a. take a formal medical history

b. focus on immediate needs and concerns

c. seek detailed information from the survivor about traumatic experiences to ensure appropriate referral

d. gather all information upon initial contact so interventions can be planned and implemented immediately

e. do all of the above

Survivors with pre-existing medical conditions:

Select one:

a. are unlikely to benefit from Psychological First Aid

b. are likely to do well in disaster situations because they know how to deal with adversity

c. may experience a worsening of their symptoms as a result of a disaster

d. are likely to recover fairly quickly from disaster-related distress because they know how to deal with adversity

e. should be referred immediately to a physician

In assisting an individual who has lost a pet in a tornado in which there were many physical injuries and deaths, the Psychological First Aid provider should:

Select one:

a. avoid making contact with the individual

b. explain that others are in greater need of help

c. recognize that the lost pet may be of great importance to the individual

d. hand the individual information on coping with loss and move directly to those with physical injuries

e. do b, c, and d above

Youth are most likely to benefit from practical assistance that helps them to:

Select one:

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a. forget their disaster experiences

b. relive their disaster experiences

c. clarify their needs and concerns

d. consider only one course of action

e. avoid problem solving

Social support in the aftermath of a disaster can come in many forms including:

Select one:

a. emotional support

b. information about services

c. physical assistance

d. material assistance

e. all of the above

Connecting adolescents with social supports may appropriately involve helping them to do all of the following EXCEPT:

Select one:

a. share with others

b. engage in enjoyable activities with other youth

c. spend time with younger siblings

d. help with chores to support family and community

e. avoid thinking about how they have handled problems in the past

Which of the following is likely to be most beneficial to withdrawn or socially isolated survivors in the immediate aftermath of a disaster:

Select one:

a. insisting they talk to others as a way of dealing with their own disaster experiences

b. encouraging them to help others so they take the focus off of themselves and their problems

c. discouraging interaction with others until their own concerns are fully addressed

d. helping them to think about the type of support that would be helpful to them

e. reminding them to avoid contact with other survivors if they are not ready to engage in conversation

Positive reactions to disaster:

Select one:

a. are rarely observed in survivors

b. are rarely observed in loved ones of survivors

c. may include an increased appreciation of life

d. generally include a decrease in spiritual beliefs

e. are characterized by all of the above

Intrusive reactions, avoidance and withdrawal, and physical arousal in disaster survivors:

Select one:

a. indicate severe psychological disturbance

b. indicate severe physical injury

c. are common indicators of distress in the immediate aftermath of a disaster

d. require the immediate assistance of a mental health professional

e. can be dismissed because they are not associated with severe psychological problems

You are delivering Psychological First Aid in a shelter that is filled to capacity. A mother shows up at the door with a toddler and is refused admission by the supervisor in charge. The mother is frantic and asks that her child be allowed to stay in the shelter.

Which of the following should you NOT do?

Select one:

a. See if the mother and child need food or water and explain where the nearest open shelter is

b. Ask if she needs transportation to the nearest open shelter

c. Tell the supervisor that this mother and child should be allowed admission to this shelter because she is tired

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d. Explain to the mother that she and her child should stay together, and discuss options to solve the problem

Post-disaster reminders:

Select one:

a. may include situations in which positive things remind survivors of how life has changed

b. are generally unrelated to the specific type of disaster

c. are generally unrelated to the hardships faced by survivors

d. are rare in most disasters

e. are generally indicators of psychological health because they indicate that survivors are reviewing their experiences

Maladaptive coping actions used by disaster survivors include:

Select one:

a. keeping a journal

b. maintaining a normal schedule to the extent possible

c. participating in a support group

d. working longer hours than normal

e. avoiding risky behavior

When a parent expresses concern that his child cries when left for even brief periods of time, the Psychological First Aid provider could appropriately tell the parent all of the following EXCEPT:

Select one:

a. separations may remind children of separations experienced during the disaster

b. children who cannot yet say how they feel may show fear by clinging or crying

c. children may experience bodily reactions to separations

d. it is likely that children use crying to manipulate parents

e. parents can help children by limiting separations in the immediate aftermath of a disaster

Post-disaster distress in adolescents may be expressed by which of the following:

Select one:

a. abrupt shifts in interpersonal relationships

b. radical changes in attitude

c. detachment, shame, and guilt

d. self-consciousness about their fears

e. all of the above

Points of Dispensing (POD) centers are generally established to:

Select one:

a. distribute medications or vaccinations

b. provide information via phone banks and hotlines

c. coordinate the activities of community outreach teams

d. provide a variety of community services and referrals in a central location

e. do all of the above

Most survivors who have been in a terrorist attack will need stabilization?

Select one:

True

False

Reassuring survivors that they will have community members available to them in case they need help is what type of support?

Select one:

a. Emotional

b. Physical

c. Reliable

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d. Reassurance of self worth

e. Advice and information

What should a PFA provider do with the survivor before making a referral?

Select one:

a. Refer the survivor to services he/she used before the disaster

b. Give the survivor written information about services but not make an appointment

c. Encourage the survivor to postpone seeking help for at least two weeks after the disaster

d. Summarize discussion you had with the survivor about his/her needs and concerns

You are manning a telephone hotline in a city experiencing an outbreak of pandemic flu. You have been given a set of questions to ask callers (for example, do you have a fever?) and information to provide depending on the expressed concerns of callers.

A woman calls in a panic and can’t calm down. What do you do?

Select one:

a. Yell until the caller is listening to you

b. Tell her to call back when she has calm down and then hang up

c. Remain calm yourself, give her a few minutes to calm down, and ask her what her current concerns are

d. Read off the list of questions and try to get the answers to all the questions

All of the following are appropriate when making referrals for children and adolescents EXCEPT:

Select one:

a. insisting that adolescents participate in private, rather than family, counseling

b. obtaining parental consent for services other than immediate emergency care

c. making interactions with children and adolescents positive to help them to develop a positive attitude toward future care providers

d. recommending that follow-up services for the family include at least a brief evaluation of child and adolescent adjustment

e. helping to minimize the number of times that children and adolescents will have to retell the story of their experiences

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