Sociology Assignment

ASA Style (Source: Cal State LA)

Quotes and Citations

· If author’s name is in the text, follow it with the publication year and page number or PowerPoint slide number in parentheses:

When Chu (1977:16) studied…

· If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name, year, and page number in parentheses:

When the study was completed… (Jones 1994:72).

· If the page number is to be included, it follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number:

…as reported by Chavez (1966:16).

· For three authors, give all last names in the first citation in the text. Afterwards use the first name and “et al.” For more than three names, use the first author’s last name plus “et al.” Examples as follow:

Three authors, first in-text citation = (Smith, Garcia and Lee 1954:10)

Three authors, later in-text citations = (Smith et al. 1954:17)

More than three authors = (Snow et al. 1999:154)

· THIS IS THE PREFERRED METHOD. Quotations in the text must begin and end with quotation marks. The citation follows the end-quote mark and precedes the period, as follows:

“In the late 1990s, reported data shows that technologically oriented jobs paid better” (Hildenbrand 1999:47).


· References follow the text and endnotes in a separate section headed “References.”

· All references cited in the text must be listed and vice-versa.

· Remember: Like all other parts of the paper, references should be double-spaced.

· List references in alphabetical order by author’s last names.

· Use hanging indention (see examples below). This is when the first line of an entry is at the margin and the following lines are indented.

· Invert the author’s name (type it last name first). If there are two or more authors, invert only the first author’s name.

· Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of publication, earliest year first.

· Use six hyphens and a period (——.) in place of the name(s) for repeated authorship.

· Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding letters (e.g. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c).

· Use italics for book and periodical titles (underline if italics are not available).

· If no date is available use “N.d.” in place of the date.

· Include both city and state for place of publication (except for New York) using U.S.

· Postal Code abbreviations. For foreign cities provide the name of the country.

Reference Entry Examples:

(Do not skip lines between reference entries.)

Chapters, Books, Articles:

Holley, Polly D. and Devin E. Wright, Jr. 2006. “A Sociology of Rib Joints.” Pp. 46-53 in

McDonaldization: The Reader, edited by George Ritzer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine

Forge Press.

PowerPoint files:

Ballantine, Jeanne H. and Keith A. Roberts. 2018. “Topic.” Pp. 1 – 25 in Class Name, edited by Peter A. Aguilera. City, CA: Your College Name. Retrieved June 9, 2019 (

Note: the names are dependent on the authors of the main textbook. My slides are always based off of textbook material with additions from my own work. For the year, put the year our class is taking place. Retrieved date is the actual date you got the file. You quote and cite the slides would go: “Quote” (Name and Name Year:#). The # is the slide number. You treat a slide number like a page number.

Web Resources:

Spalter-Roth, Roberta and William Erskine. 2016. “Race and Ethnicity in the Sociology

Pipeline.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved January 9, 2017 (

Class Lecture:

Aguilera, Peter A. 2019. “Topic.” Presented at Your College Name, Month Day, City, CA.

For the above example, be sure to customize the topic, college, date, and location. A quote from me would go: “Quote” (Aguilera 2018).