Transformational Leadership

ransformational Leadership

Memories of our lives, of our works and

our deeds will continue in others.

Rosa Parks (1913-2005)

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Overview

  • Charismatic Leadership
  • Characteristics
  • Transformational Leadership
  • Characteristics
  • Transformational Leadership Continuum

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Charismatic Leadership
(House, 1976)

Positive Characteristics

  • Passionate, driven
  • Form emotional attachments
  • Compelling vision
  • Heightened emotional levels
  • Can result in positive social changes

Negative Characteristics

  • Passion can be used for selfish or personal gains
  • Loyalty and devotion to leader can result in unquestioned obedience with disregard to one’s self-interest
  • Can be narcissistic

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Provided impetus for

Transformational Leadership

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Transformational Leadership

  • James McGregor Burns, Leadership (1978)
  • Focus of much of today’s

research

  • Process that changes and transforms an individual
  • Empowers followers and nurtures them in change

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Transformational Leadership Described

  • Raises the consciousness in individuals and gets them to transcend their own self-interests for the sake of others
  • Must be strong role model and highly developed set of moral values and sense of identity
  • Create a vision which is the collective interests of others in the organization
  • Always involves conflict and change to perpetuate a cause

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Transformational Leadership Qualities

  • Change agent
  • Exceptional influence
  • Charismatic
  • Visionary
  • Appeal to higher ideals and values
  • Spirit of cooperation
  • Controversial
  • Inspirational motivation
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Raise consciousness
  • Listens to opposing views
  • Ethical
  • Strong role model
  • Articulate
  • Confident
  • Form strong emotional attachment with followers

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Transformational Leadership Model

  • Bass (1985) extended Burns’ work then teamed with Avolio
  • Gave more attention to followers’ needs
  • Unlike Burns, Bass viewed leadership as amoral
  • Leaders can transform followers by:
  • Increasing their awareness of task importance and value
  • Getting them to focus on organization goals, rather than their own
  • Activating their higher-order needs

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Transformational Leadership Continuum
(Bass & Avolio, 1985, 1990, 1997)

  • Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
  • Evaluates leadership style
  • Styles
  • Laissez Faire
  • Transactional Leadership
  • Transformational Leadership

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Transformational Leadership Continuum

Laissez Faire

  • “Hands off”
  • Inactive
  • Avoid making decisions
  • Gives no feedback
  • Wait for things to go wrong before acting
  • No personal/professional growth for followers

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Transformational Leadership Continuum

Transactional

  • Focus on exchange between leader and followers
  • Focus on expectations and goals; task completion
  • Relies on organizational rewards and punishments
  • No enduring purpose or societal change
  • No moral component
  • Doesn’t individualize needs of followers
  • No personal development
  • Can be marginally successfully
  • Can build a base level of trust
  • Very common, everyday type of leadership

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Transformational Leadership Continuum

Transformational

  • Appeals to followers’ values and sense of higher purpose
  • Compelling vision of what society or organization could be
  • Connection raises the level of motivational and morality – realize ethical consequences of decisions
  • Moral exercise that serves to raise the standard of human conduct – go beyond self-interest
  • Focus on followers reaching their full potential

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Transformational Leadership

Criticisms

  • Difficult to measure
  • Focus on the “great leader”
  • Trait rather than behavior to be acquired
  • Elitist/heroic
  • Potential for abuse
  • Research focuses on senior leaders

Strengths

  • Widely researched with positive results
  • Ethical/moral component
  • Emphasis on followers’ needs
  • Focus of much of today’s research

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